Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Inflamatory bowel disease {40000180}

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Inflamatory bowel disease
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Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
Gut Inflammation


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References Notes

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.20
    - Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD.
  • [1.21
    - Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are more likely to develop Parkinson disease.
  • [1.22
    - Translocation of oral bacteria and yeasts to the lower GI tract may trigger inflammation in susceptible hosts, providing a mechanistic link to the development of IBD. - Conversely, dysbiosis of the oral microbiome may occur, possibly as a result of inflammatory responses and could represent a useful source of biomarkers of GI health.
  • [1.23
    - Some pro-inflammatory bacterial species are coated with a specific type of immune molecules called immunoglobulins A (IgA) which can be used as a proxy to identify microbes that stimulate immune responses - IgA coating of Oscillospira was associated with a delay in time to surgery in IBD
  • [1.24
    - Gut metagenomic profiles of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly correlated with fecal calprotectin levels, a biomarker for severity of inflammation in IBD.
  • [1.25
    - reduced levels of Christensenellaceae, Odoribacter, and Gemmiger and increased abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae. - In IBD, 12 features were identified in all three comparisons, including increased Peptostreptococcaceae, and decreased levels of Mogibacteriaceae and Gemmiger
  • [1.26] [#Akkermansia muciniphila
    - The genus Akkermansia belongs to the Verrucomicrobiaceae and is often associated with a healthy gut microbiome. Due to its low proportion in IBD and other metabolic diseases, anti-inflammatory properties are ascribed to this genus in IBD.
  • -#Dorea belongs to the Lachnospiraceae family, which was recently associated with IBD and which is also found in IBD patients with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate.
  • [1.27
    - Postbiotics, such as bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and tryptophan metabolites in the development of IBD-associated gut and brain dysfunctions.
  • - The blood–brain barrier allows the access of #Tryptophan. - In IBD, especially in CD patients, TRP metabolism increases; consequently, the amino acid levels are reduced with respect to normal healthy individuals, and these changes correlate with the gravity of the disease. - TRP undergoes two major metabolic host pathways, the kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5-HT) biosynthetic pathways, and one microbial pathway to produce indole and its derivatives
  • [1.28
    - A #Sugar-rich diet favors the increase of #Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucolytic bacterium. The mucus layer separates luminal bacteria from intestinal epithelium: A thinner mucus layer allows bacteria to come in contact with the epithelial cells, eliciting an inflammatory response.
  • - Diet rich in high saturated fats promotes chronic inflammation. - One explanation is that the amino acid #Taurine, present in saturated fats, linked to bile acids, seems to increase substrate availability for sulfur-reducing bacteria like #Bilophila wadsworthia, highly prevalent in the dysbiotic microbiota of IBD patients.
  • [1.29
    - There is mycobiome alterations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients experiencing a flare compared with a healthy or IBD patients in remission. - These alterations included an increased fungi/bacteria diversity ratio and an increased abundance of #Candida albicans, suggestive of fungal overgrowth during inflammation
  • - #Malassezia restricta, was identified in the majority of patients carrying the IBD risk allele CARD9, a molecule involved in fungal innate immunity.
  • [1.30
    - Patients with IBD typically have a far less diverse intestinal microbiota than healthy people, as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory bacteria like Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli and Fusobacterium. - At the same time, bacteria that generate butyrate, an essential molecule for intestinal and immune health, are declining
  • [1.32] [#Ultra-processed food intake
  • [1.33
    - Seven bacterial species correlated with expression levels of Th17 effector cytokines, IL-17A and IL-17F. - The seven associated species include Ruminococcus gnavus, Escherichia coli, Lachnospiraceae bacterium, Clostridium hathewayi, Bacteroides faecis, Bacteroides vulgatus, and Akkermansia muciniphila. All of the species were positively associated with IL-17A/ IL-17F except Akkermansia muciniphila, suggesting these species are proinflammatory, while Akkermansia muciniphila is anti-inflammatory.
  • [1.35
    - #Anti-TNF therapy shifted the diversity of fecal microbiota in patients with IBD
  • [1.16] [#Lactoferrin
    - LF > potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory substrate > prevention and treatment of IBD through regulating intestine mucosal immune response.
  • [1.40] [#Clostridium difficile infection, #Irritable bowel syndrome
    - Combining human variables and gut microbiota achieved the best performances in predicting IBD, IBS, CDI, and unhealthy status, indicating independent associations between gut microbiota and these diseases.
  • [1.17] [#Colorectal cancer, #Crohn’s disease] [#Common consumer products
    - #Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent found in thousands of consumer products > exacerbates #Colitis and #Colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis in animal models. - intestinal commensal microbes > microbial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes > mediate metabolic activation of #Triclosan in the colon > gut toxicology.
  • [1.41] [#Crohn’s disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] [#Western-style diet
    - Two commonly used emulsifiers, #Carboxymethylcellulose and #Polysorbate-80 > induce inflammation and metabolic changes, mediated by gut microbes.
  • [#Exclusive Enteral Nutrition] - EEN > reduce microbial diversity > lower SCFA concentrations (including butyrate) & reduce Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is usually considered beneficial in IBD. - Responders to EEN showed lower bacterial richness than nonresponders. - EEN > showed a decrease in Shannon diversity with EEN, but this returned to pretreatment levels two months after EEN was stopped, as did decreases in Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, and Faecalibacterium. - It is hypothesized that some of these decreases in specific taxa and diversity are simply due to the lack of fibre in EEN.
  • [1.45] [#Salmonella typhimurium
    - adherent-invasive #Escherichia coli (AIEC), and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium > induce inflammation (through elevated T helper (TH) 1 and TH17 immune responses) in IBD animal model > fibrosis development. - in patients with #Crohn’s disease, AIEC strains > ileal mucosa > trigger the initiation or perpetuation of the inflammatory disease.
  • [1.46] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome, #Multiple Sclerosis
    - MC/CFS > a reduction of #Faecalibacterium was also found in IBD patients with fatigue (compared to IBD patients without fatigue), , #Cancer-related fatigue (compared to #Cancer patients with low fatigue) and other autoimmune diseases such as MS and #Diabetes Type 1 .
  • [1.47] [#Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • [1.18
    - Bile acid > gut-residing bacteria produce metabolite 3-oxolithocholic acid (3-oxoLCA) > inhibits TH17 (inhibitory) cell differentiation. - Secondary bile acid #Lithocholic acid > gut bacteria > 3-oxoLCA as well as the abundant gut metabolite isolithocholic acid (isoLCA). - IsoLCA suppressed TH17 differentiation by inhibiting RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γt), a key TH17 cell-promoting transcription factor. - Levels of both 3-oxoLCA and isoLCA and the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSDH) genes required for their biosynthesis were significantly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). - levels of these #Bile Acids were inversely correlated with expression of TH17 cell-associated genes. - bacterially produced TH17 cell-inhibitory #Bile Acids may reduce the risk of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as IBD
  • [1.6
    - the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease > rich genetic diversity of opportunistic #Candida albicans strains. - Among these human-gut-derived isolates, strains with high immune-cell-damaging capacity (HD strains) reflect the disease features of individual patients with ulcerative colitis and aggravated intestinal inflammation in vivo through IL-1β-dependent mechanisms. - Niche-specific inflammatory immunity and interleukin-17A-producing T helper cell (TH17 cell) antifungal responses by HD strains in the gut were dependent on the C. albicans-secreted peptide toxin #Candidalysin during the transition from a benign commensal to a pathobiont state.
  • [1.49
    - patients with #Depression were two times as likely to develop IBD. - 30% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients develop #Depression.
  • [1.50
    - Inflammatory Bowel Disease > increased Primary #Bile Acids
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), SCFAs have been shown to alleviate inflammatory phenotypes by regulating IL-10 production by T cells in both humans and the mouse model.
  • [1.51
    - studies have demonstrated striking differences between luminal and mucosal samples within the colon itself, specifically regarding mucosa-associated bacteria such as #Bifidobacterium, #Lactobacillus, and #Akkermansia. - the microbial community composition is different between ileal luminal samples from colonic and fecal samples, as well along the length of the colon itself.
  • [1.9] [#Bacteriophage
    - #Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) strains are associated with IBD severity across geography. - A Kp-targeting five-phage combination suppresses intestinal inflammation in IBD models
  • [1.52] [#Systemic anti-microbiota IgG
    - a modified high-throughput, culture-independent approach to quantify systemic IgG against gut commensal bacteria in human serum samples without the need for paired stool samples. - Using this approach, we highlight several commensal bacterial species that elicit elevated IgG responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including taxa within the clades #Collinsella, #Bifidobacterium, #Lachnospiraceae, and #Ruminococcaceae.
  • [1.53] [#Bile Acids, #Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - Reduced BA deconjugation is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including #Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and #Crohn’s disease (CD), as well as #Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • [1.54
    - IBD Patient > Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIF-R) concentrations were inversely associated with severe #Fatigue
  • - Ninety-two (92) different inflammation-related proteins were measured in plasma of 350 patients with clinically quiescent IBD.
  • [1.15] [#Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)
    - IBD patients have reduced fecal concentrations of the AhR agonist IAA.
  • [#Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA)] - The metabolite IPA regulates the intestinal barrier function in mice by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) or AhR. - Trp metabolite IPA in the serum from patients with active colitis is also selectively diminished.
  • [#kynurenine, #Tryptophan] - patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have lower levels of Trp in both their serum and feces than healthy subjects. - active IBD > increased Kyn or Kyn/Trp ratios in IBD patients, indicating the promoted Trp metabolism along the Kyn pathway.
  • [1.55] [#Sutterella wadsworthensis
    - Sutterella, a Gram-negative genus from Proteobacteria, has been associated with various diseases including #Autism and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • [1.10] [#Colorectal cancer
    - Morganella morganii is enriched in the gut microbiota of both IBD and CRC patients. - Morganella morganii-derived small-molecule genotoxins—termed the #Indolimines—that elicited DNA damage in cell-based and cell-free assays. - In a mouse model of colon cancer, M. morganii exacerbated tumor burden, but a mutant form of the bacteria unable to produce indolimine did not.
  • [1.56
    - Ruminococcus torques and Ruminococcus gnavus, two prominent species in IBD19, were also differentially abundant in dysbiotic CD and UC, respectively as well as showing differences in abundance, including Clostridium hathewayi, Clostridium bolteae, and R. gnavus. All had significantly increased expression during dysbiosis, and thus their roles in IBD may be more pronounced than suggested solely by their differences in genomic abundance. - The reduction in butyrate in particular is consistent with the previously observed depletion of butyrate producers such as F. prausnitzii and R. hominis.

Common References