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Shared Reference Notes
- #Whole-plant virgin sugarcane fibre is shown to ferment at a uniform rate and results in significant SCFA levels via microbial synthesis. - Supplementation of complex whole-plant sugarcane fibre alone and in combination with probiotic bacteria has been confirmed to impart anti-inflammatory effects on colonic tissues in mice models of IBD through production of SCFAs along the entire colon length and significantly reduce the colitis-associated diseases symptoms in-vivo and influence microbial diversity in the proximal and distal regions of the colon resulting in attenuation of gut inflammation. - The whole-plant sugarcane fibre has been previously demonstrated to impart positive effects on human gut microbiota in-vitro, particularly influencing the abundance of members of family #Bifidobacteriaceae. - Compared with the other dietary fibre supplements tested (wheat dextrin and psyllium husk), the whole plant sugarcane fibre shows the highest availability of polyphenols and antioxidant potential. - Addition of polyphenol extracts and polyphenol rich foods increase the abundance of #Bifidobacteriaceae.
- Besides vitamins and minerals, polyphenols found in thousands of plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, and cacao, promote a greater abundance of beneficial bacteria, and some polyphenols also exert prebiotic activity. - Gut bacteria also increase the bioavailability of the beneficial polyphenols so they can exert their health benefits.
- [1.3] [#Cancer]
- Green tea contains polyphenols, which are natural compounds widely distributed in plant foods and with many biological activities including inhibition of DNA methylation.
- [1.4] [#Parkinson’s Disease]
- Gut Microbiota > produce polyphenol > protect against neurological diseases with α-syn toxicity
- [1.5] [#Steatohepatitis]
- Polyphenols > preventing hepatocellular damage through several possible mechanisms, including reducing de novo lipogenesis, increasing fatty acid oxidation and reducing oxidative stress> reducing liver steatosis. - Mixture of flavonoids > increase fatty acid oxidation in the liver > reduce inflammation by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells > increase adiponectin > reduce BP
- [1.6] [#Grape]
- Grapes provide a rich source of polyphenols and fibers
- [1.7] [#Cancer] [#Bile Acids, #Castalagin] [#Polyphenol-rich supplementation]
- oral supplementation with the polyphenol-rich berry camu-camu (CC, Myrciaria dubia) in mice > shifted gut microbial composition, which translated into antitumor activity and a stronger anti-PD-1 response.
- A typical cup of brewed green #Tea beverage (e.g., 2.5 g of leaves steeped for 3 min in 250 mL of water) contains 240 single bond 320 mg of catechins, of which EGCG is the most abundant, accounting for almost half of the total GTPs
- #Cranberry extract, a rich source of polyphenols, induced improvements in metabolism (e.g., reduced visceral obesity and improved insulin sensitivity) in mice on a high-fat high-sucrose diet that were associated with an increase in #Akkermansia muciniphila
- [#Vegetarian diet] - Vegetables and fruits are also important sources of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, glucosinolates, terpenoids, phytosterols, and alkaloids
- - #Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1 metabolizes #Curcumin to produce demethylcurcumin and bisdemethylcurcumin through a demethylation reaction.
- It is estimated that only 5–10 % of dietary polyphenols are absorbed in the small intestine. However, the remaining 90–95 % of dietary polyphenols are able to reach the colon for metabolism by gut microbiota.
- [1.12] [#Systemic lupus erythematosus] [#Flavonoid]
- dietary polyphenol as dihydrochalcones and flavanones affected the gut microbiome and ameliorated lupus disease activity. - dietary flavones increased #Blautia (family: Lachnospiraceae), and that often found in active lupus diseases.
- [1.13] [#Polyphenol-rich supplementation]
- Four dietary polyphenols (rutin, #Quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and #Caffeic acid) can reduce the ratio of #Firmicutes to #Bacteroides in in vitro gut microbiota experiments.
- - Only 5–10% of the total polyphenol intake are absorbed in the small intestine! Most, 90–95% of the total, are transported to the human large intestine. - Dietary polyphenol can modulate the gut microbial composition, and, at the same time, gut microbiota also improve the bioavailability of polyphenols by converting them to "more compatible" molecules for our body
- [1.14] [#Sport]
- [1.15] [#Catechins]
- #Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) is a rich source of flavan-3-ols including catechin, epicatechin, and #Anthocyanins which were shown to produce a variety of bioavailable #Phenolic acids both in the plasma and brain.
- - Apigenin and diosmetin, both #Grape-derived polyphenols, potently and dose-dependently inhibited AGE-induced #Nitric Oxide and TNFα release
- - There are three major catabolic mechanisms elicited by the gut microbiota to produce bioactive #Phenolic acids frpm polyphenols: hydrolysis (O-deglycosylations and ester hydrolysis), cleavage (C-ring cleavage, delactonization, demethylation) and reduction (dehydroxylation and double bond reduction)
- - dietary polyphenols act as prebiotics enhancing the growth of specific beneficial bacterial species that elicit health benefits - autochthonous gut microbiota can increase the production of bioactive phenolic acids derived from dietary polyphenols increasing their beneficial biological activity.
- - Only 5–10% of dietary polyphenols are absorbed in the small intestine where they subsequently undergo phase I biotransformation (i.e., oxidation) in the endothelial cells and phase II biotransformation (i.e., conjugation) in hepatocytes liberating water-soluble conjugate metabolites.
- - Dietary Polyphenol Preparation (BDPP) containing GSPE, concord #Grape juice and #Resveratrol was shown to attenuate #Sleep Deprivation-induced contextual memory deficits.
- [1.17] [#Agavins] [#Cranberry]
- The combination of CP+AG significantly increased the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (#AHR).
- - Oral supplementation with #Cranberry polyphenols (CP) selectively and robustly (five-fold) increases the relative abundance of #Akkermansia muciniphila.
- [#Amedibacterium Intestinale] - #Agavins (AG), either alone or combined with cranberry polyphenols (CP+AG), mainly stimulated the glycan-degrading bacteria Muribaculum intestinale, #Faecalibaculum rodentium, #Bacteroides uniformis, and #Bacteroides acidifaciens. - This increase of glycan-degrading bacteria was consistent with a significantly increased level of #Butyrate in obese mice receiving AG,
- [1.18] [#Diabetes Type 2]
- #Blueberries (genus Vaccinium sect. Cyanococcus) are amongst the best studied polyphenol-rich fruit, and mechanistic and epidemiological studies have indicated a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and death, as well as improved brain and possibly visual function with regular consumption
- The #Coriobacteriaceae family are thought to be to polyphenol degraders
- - diet high in EVOO (vs refined #Olive oil, which is devoid of polyphenols) to Swiss Webster mice resulted in reduced levels of species in the #Desulfovibrionaceae.
- [1.21] [#Urolithin A] [#Almond, #Walnut]
- UA is a bacterial metabolite produced by dietary #Ellagitannins and #Ellagic acid. - These polyphenols are found in plant products, mainly in pomegranates, berries, walnuts, and almonds, but also in some tropical fruits, medicinal plants, and herbal teas - UA is involved in mitochondrial health, and its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. - the formation of urolithins declines with age.
- [1.22] [#Coffee]
- #Kombucha > include polyphenols, D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone, caffeine, organic acids, #Ethanol, and various alkaloids > prevent oxidative stress-related diseases
- addition of #Tea polyphenols increased #Akkermansia abundance in HF mice, which is consistent with previous research indicating that TP, #Cranberry, chlorogenic acid, and #Grape also increase the colonization of #Akkermansia in the gut - increase in small intestinal goblet cells in TP-treated mice, which secrete mucins, a food source for #Akkermansia development. - Polyphenols increase intestinal mucus secretion which is the food source of #Akkermansia.
- [#Green Tea] - tea polyphenols (TP) significantly decreases the #Firmicutes/#Bacteroidetes ratio. - Suppression of #Firmicutes by tea polyphenols and their metabolites favors #Bacteroidetes in the gut of mice, indicating that tea polyphenols has a modulatory effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota.
- It has been reported that consumptions of polyphenols and #Phytosterols such as β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, are beneficial for the human immune system and health due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and #Cholesterol-lowering activity
- - Both polyphenols and #Phytosterols reduce #Cholesterol levels in the cell membrane or destabilize the structure of lipid rafts, which are the main docking sites for #Covid-19 entry and genome release
- [#Respiratory syncytial virus] - dietary polyphenol, lignan and #Phytosterol intake in reducing #Covid-19 risk. - The antiviral efficacy of polyphenols including #Lignans and plant sterols has been confirmed against SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Ebola virus, HIV, #Influenza virus and other viruses causing respiratory tract infections. - their beneficial effects against the SARS-CoV-2 virus resulting from their ability to bind to peak protein sites on the ACE2 receptor used by SARS-CoV-2 to infect cells, regulate ACE2 expression and also interfere with SARS-CoV-2 replication by inhibiting the virus protease or inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)
- - prevention of cytokine storm in ill patients > by polyphenols and #Phytosterols, which, through their effects on macrophages, inhibit the secretion of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1-beta (IL-1ß), #IL-2, #IL-6, γ-interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) reducing inflammation caused by hyperactivation of cytokines
- - Polyphenols can also enhance resistance to foreign pathogens through other inflammation-related pathways like activation of T regulatory cells (Treg), which can suppress cytotoxic T cell function, affecting dendritic cells, increasing B and T lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis
- [1.26] [#Adlercreutzia equolifaciens]
- Specific bacterial strains that have the ability to process dietary polyphenols have been identified and include #Eubacterium ramulus, Adlercreutiza equolifaciens and #Flavonifractor plautii
- [#Flavonoid] - Polyphenols exist in various forms including flavanols, flavanones and #Anthocyanins
- - Most polyphenols pass through the small intestine and can therefore influence the microbes residing in the large intestine.
- #Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) belongs to the stilbenoid group of polyphenols. - #Resveratrol > diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and anticancer properties.
- [1.28] [#Parkinson’s Disease]
- gut microbiota-based metabolism of dietary polyphenols—e.g., #3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-diHBA), #3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPPA), and #3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA) — have shown an in vitro ability to inhibit α-synuclein oligomerization and mediate aggregated α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity
- [1.29] [#Akkermansia muciniphila] [#Flavonoid]
- #Silymarin/#Silibinin > dietary flavonoids or polyphenols > increase of ASV5 (A. muciniphila)