Immunomodulation, Anti fibrosis, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-cancer
- Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was named after the German bacteriologist Otto Prausnitz and was first described in 2002. - - - Since it does not survive contact with oxygen, it went undetected for a long time when trying to cultivate it. It is now well known, but many mechanisms are not yet fully understood.
- It became famous for the formation of short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate and acetate.
- In fact, F. prausnitzii is the strongest butyrate generator that we have in us.
- butyrat as an extremely important fatty acid has shown multiple anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting pro-inflammatory substances such as IL-8 and helping the immune system to differentiate from regulatory T cells. It also serves as an important source of energy for the cells of the intestinal wall.
- The bacterium is also used diagnostically as an indicator for the intestinal barrier. If the concentration is low and additional inflammation values such as zonulin and calprotectin are high, one speaks of leaky gut, the permeable intestinal barrier.
- A low F. prausnitzii concentration is associated with more inflammation in the intestine. This behavior was first linked to Crohn’s disease in 2008. The stronger the symptoms of the disease, the lower the frequency of F. prausnitzii and butyrate. One study showed that even in Crohn’s patients in remission (symptoms decreased, but no cure), the number of F. prausnitzii was reduced.
- A deficiency of F. prausnitzii can also lead to immune regulation disorders or metabolic diseases.
- F. prausnitzii can be supplied well with the fiber inulin which can be found in chicory, artichokes and onions.
- Within the gut microbiome, it is particularly well networked with the species A. muciniphila. itssubstrates are an important food source for F. prausnitzii. An assessment of one species is therefore always accompanied by an assessment of the other.
- F. prausnitziiis the largest producer of butyrate and the largest consumer of acetate and is the most important species inhabiting the intestine. Its depletion along with the reduction of Bifidobacterium (which is more reduced in patients with kidney stones) leads to a reduction in the intestinal butyrate levels, which thence leads to a functional instability in the gastrointestinal tract and urothelium thereby resulting in an inflammatory pattern. (1)
- F. prausnitziiis which is often diminished in patients with Crohn’s disease, appear to exert many of their protective effects through the release of a fatty acid called butyrate.
- F. prausnitziiis modulates immune system.
- F. prausnitziiis modulates is the indicator for leaky gut.
Shared Reference Notes
[1.1] - Certain Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains possess some ability to utilise apple pectin.
- F. prausnitzii strains in common with E. eligens can utilise the galacturonide oligosaccharides DP4 and DP5 derived from sugar beet pectin.
[1.2] [#Crohn’s disease] [#Escherichia coli] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation] - Comprehensive overview of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during IBD activity showed increases in facultative anaerobes, such as E. coli which correlates with inflammation status, and decreases in obligate anaerobes, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Roseburia hominis
-The results of the present study confirmed decreases in the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, increases in Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Veillonellaceae and the presence of Fusobacterium in stool samples of CD patients.
- #Butyrate-producing bacteria are depleted in IBD patients, and probiotic treatment with these bacteria has therapeutic potential.
- A higher proportion of #Lachnospiraceae in donor stool was associated with a higher success rate of FMT, and recipients that responded to FMT exhibited increases in #Butyrate-producing #Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae.
- The reduced SCFA levels in patients with IBD result from lower abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria, especially those of the phylum Firmicutes.
-- #Butyrate can act as an energy source for normal colon epithelial cells, promoting their proliferation, but can also inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis.
[1.3] [#Cancer] [#Plant-based diet] - High levels of plant dietary fibers in the gut resulted in proliferation of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
[1.6] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - #Exclusive Enteral Nutrition > reduce microbial diversity > lower SCFA concentrations (including #Butyrate) & reduce Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is usually considered beneficial in IBD.
- Responders to EEN showed lower bacterial richness than nonresponders.
- EEN > showed a decrease in Shannon diversity with EEN, but this returned to pretreatment levels two months after EEN was stopped, as did decreases in Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, and Faecalibacterium.
- It is hypothesized that some of these decreases in specific taxa and diversity are simply due to the lack of fibre in EEN.
[1.8] - #Butyrate plays a role in regulating immune response via expansion of Treg cell populations, which is suggestive of a role for SCFA in ameliorating pro-inflammatory responses of immune cells to antigenic stimuli.
- Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, help maintain homeostasis through production of SCFAs (#Butyrate) and modulation of downstream inflammatory pathways through potential induction of a tolerogenic cytokine profile (e.g., low secretion of proinflammatory and elevated secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines)
[1.9] - The most prominent butyrogenic bacteria groups are Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, #Butyrivibriocrossotus and #Roseburia intestinalis which several studies have reported the depletion of these bacteria in atherosclerosis
[1.11] [#Butyrate] - Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of Clostridium leptum subgroup, representing more than 5% of the total gut microbiota in healthy humans, is one of the most abundant #Butyric acid producing bacteria of the gut microbiome. It favorably modulates intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and colonocyte metabolism.
- it reduces intestinal inflammatory processes with inhibition of the pro-inflammatory interleukin 8.
[1.12] [#Depression] [#Dark chocolate] - #Blautia obeum levels were significantly elevated and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii levels were reduced in DC85 compared to CON (P<.05).
- Mood states were measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
- the observed changes in negative affect scores were negatively correlated with diversity and relative abundance of #Blautia obeum.
[1.14] - GutAlive maintained extremely #Oxygen sensitive (EOS) populations that were lost in conventional stool containers, and thus viability of species such as as #Akkermansia muciniphila, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and a novel member of the #Clostridiales order was kept.
[1.19] - levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides–Prevotella group, #Atopobium Cluster, #Enterobacter spp. and #Clostridium Cluster IV were higher in BD patients than healthy subjects along with a reduced Bifidobacteria to Enterobacteriaceae ratio,
[#Prostate cancer] - fecal abundances of F. prausnitzii observed in benign as compared to malignant patient samples.
- F. prausnitzii is generally considered to have anti-inflammatory properties with its ability to produce butyrate and induce secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
[1.21] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] - Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Eubacterium rectale, which are both recognized as abundant, health-promoting #Butyrate producers in the human gut, were reduced in ME/CFS.
- deficient microbial capacity for #Butyrate synthesis.
- The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was inversely associated with fatigue severity.
[1.23] [#Crohn’s disease] - a reduction of a major member of Firmicutes, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, is associated with a higher risk of postoperative recurrence of ileal CD.
- A lower proportion of F. prausnitzii on resected ileal Crohn mucosa also was associated with endoscopic recurrence at 6 months.
- Oral administration of either live F. prausnitzii or its supernatant markedly reduced the severity of TNBS colitis and tended to correct the dysbiosis associated with TNBS colitis
- F. prausnitzii exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on cellular and TNBS colitis models, partly due to secreted metabolites able to block NF-κB activation and IL-8 production.
- F. prausnitzii had an anti-inflammatory profile because it induced very low secretion levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ and high secretion levels of IL-10.
[1.24] - In #Gout, #Bacteroides caccae and #Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched.
- Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted.
- The established reference microbial gene catalogue for #Gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and #Butyric acid biosynthesis in #Gout patients.
- Intestinal microbiota of #Gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes.
- #Bacteroides caccae is one biomarker of IBD. OmpW protein produced by B. caccae is a target of the IBD-associated immune response, thus the enriched intestinal B. caccae in #Gout patients could potentially induce serious inflammatory response.
- Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to gut health through butyrate production. for #Gout patients, potentially explaining the decline in #Butyric acid biosynthesis in #Gout patients.