Human breast milk {50000118}

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Human breast milk
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- Human Milk Oligosaccharides are enriched in Human Milk.
- During life, the numbers of bifidobacteria decrease from up to 90% of the total colon microbiota in vaginally delivered breast-fed infants to <5% in the colon of adults and they decrease even more in that of elderly.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Breastfeeding increases the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which is nearly twofold higher in exclusively breastfed neonates compared with those who received formula milk only. - Tregs provide balance in the immune system by controlling its response to pathogens, and preventing autoimmune responses. - The baby’s cells were less likely to see the mother’s cells as foreign if the baby was breastfed compared to formula-fed – an effect mediated by regulatory T cells. - There is an enrichment of short chain fatty acid producing taxa (Veillonella and Gemella) in stool samples of exclusively breastfed neonates.
  • [1.2
    - Breastfeeding, known to reduce the prevalence of C. difficile in infants compared to formula feeding. - B. breve is the most commonly isolated infant-type Bifidobacterium species from human milk
  • [1.3
    - Human milk have revealed a complex “nonnutrient” biologic system that includes an entire immune system, including immune-modulating compounds (27), a system promoting gut maturity [e.g., human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)] including growth factors and hormones, and a signaling system involving cell-free RNA in exosomes and microvesicles that may influence infant immunity and microbiota.
  • [1.4
    Cessation of breastfeeding is the major factor leading to gut microbiota maturation; typically, by age 2, a childs microbiome composition resembles that of an adult, dominated by anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.
  • [1.5] [#Obesity
    - Infants fed with breast milk rich in #Betaine showed reduced growth rates after birth. - Experiments in mice showed that giving #Betaine to female mice improved blood sugar metabolism and lowered fat tissue in breastfeeding offspring. - When breast-fed with milk rich in #Betaine, both mouse pups and human infants had higher amounts of #Akkermansia bacteria in their guts. - Low levels of maternal #Betaine during pregnancy are linked to increased infant weight at birth. - Maternal #Betaine supplementation resulted in lower fetal weight in a mouse study.
  • [1.6
    - At 12 months, there remain distinct characteristics in microbiome composition in infants still receiving breastmilk, characterized by enrichment of Bifidobacteriaceae, Veillonellaceae and Proteobacteria. - At 12 months, breastfed infants have a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species compared to that fed formula - Cessation of breastfeeding, rather than exposure to solid food, appears to be associated with maturation toward an “adult-like” microbiota dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes
  • [#Human milk oligosaccharides] - Low gut bacterial diversity in breastfeeding infants is thought to be a result of breastmilk oligosaccharides which serve as substrates for a limited number of gut microbes
  • [1.7
    - In breastfed infants given #Bifidobacterium infantis EVC001, which expresses all HMO-utilization genes, intestinal T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cytokines were silenced and interferon β (IFNβ) was induced. - Fecal water from EVC001-supplemented infants contains abundant indolelactate and B. infantis-derived indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) upregulated immunoregulatory galectin-1 in Th2 and Th17 cells during polarization, providing a functional link between beneficial microbes and immunoregulation during the first months of life
  • [1.8
    - Human milk and #Mucin glycans show similar molecular characteristics and sugar code.
  • [1.9] [#Staphylococcus epidermidis
    - S. epidermidis is predominantly a commensal skin microbe in humans but can also colonize the infant gut as a founding member in part through breastmilk seeding. - S. epidermidis tends to disappear from the gut with age, its presence during early immune education may facilitate establishment of a largely tolerogenic intestinal memory CD4+ T cell pool. - S. epidermidis can turn pathologic when it becomes bloodborne in an at-risk host.
  • [#Human milk oligosaccharides] - Breast milk contains important developmental and immune-promoting factors such as oligosaccharides, immunoglobulins (IgA), and #Lactoferrin which protect the newborn passively and actively against excessive intestinal inflammation
  • [1.11] [#Bifidobacterium longum] [#Human milk oligosaccharides
    - breast fed babies #Bifidobacterium spp. is typically high, than in formula fed babies because #Bifidobacterium longum utilizes fucosylated oligosaccharides which is present in mother’s milk.
  • [1.12] [#Bacteroides cellulosilyticus] [#Human milk oligosaccharides] [#Infants
    - The relative abundance of maternal B. cellulosilyticus, a versatile carbohydrate degrader, was positively associated with the overall abundance of microbial glycoside hydrolases in the infant gut, particularly those involved in HMO degradation. - Moreover, this maternal species was inversely correlated with intact HMOs in infant fecal samples and positively associated with HMO-utilizing infant species that are unable to degrade these oligosaccharides, such as #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum.
  • [#Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii] - positive association of infant intestinal inflammatory mediators, such as #Eicosanoids, with previously identified members of the breast milk microbiome and with C. kroppenstedtii, a species isolated almost exclusively from clinical mastitis samples and uniquely present in stool from breastfed #Infants in our analysis.
  • [1.13] [#Obesity] [#Infants
    - HM #Butyrate concentrations were overall negatively associated with infant weight and adiposity, and associations were stronger at younger infant ages. - HM #Butyrate concentration was also inversely correlated with HM intake volume, supporting a possible mechanism whereby #Butyrate might reduce infant growth via appetite regulation and modulation of HM intake.
  • [1.14] [#Natural Skin Microbiome] [#Infants
    - Infant Skin > Breastfeeding > at 3 and 6 months, respectively > lower abundances and frequencies of members of the #Prevotellaceae family at both timepoints
  • [1.15] [#Cesarean section, #Mother-infant
    - In CS-born infants > reduced seeding of infant fecal microbiota by maternal fecal microbes, whereas colonization with breastmilk microbiota is increased when compared with vaginally born infants. - auxiliary routes of mother-to-infant microbial seeding, which may compensate for one another, ensuring that essential microbes/microbial functions are transferred irrespective of disrupted transmission routes.
  • [1.16] [#Infants
    Infant > Breastfeeding > decreased #Acetate and increased #Succinate
  • [1.17
    - #Phosphatidylserine has implications for brain development in #Infants > induce major shifts in #Bacillota (#Firmicutes): #Bacteroidota (#Bacteroidetes) ratio in human gut microbiomes. - #Clostridia and #Veillonella genera > use #Phosphatidylserine as a substrate to catalyse phosphatidylethanolamine and plasmenylethanolamine, both by employing respective phospholipid decarboxylase activities.
  • [#Bifidobacterium infantis] [#Human milk lipids] - #Gangliosides are not antagonistic to all gastrointestinal microorganisms. - Bifidobacterium can grow in the presence of GM-3 and GD-3 while simultaneously lowering ganglioside levels in vitro. - #Bifidobacterium bifidum is very efficient in removing GD-3 by employing extracellular mechanisms, while #Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis degrades GM-3 intracellularly, with overall lower glycosidase activity.
  • - Phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) are integral to the outer Milk fat globules bilayer membrane, and while they are important for human cell proliferation during early life, some bacteria of the #Clostridium and #Enterococcus genera use ethanolamine as a source of carbon and nitrogen.
  • [#Human milk lipids] - The most abundant #Gangliosides in human milk are monosialoganglioside-3 (GM-3) and disialoganglioside-3 (GD-3). - GD-3 is very abundant in colostrum, while GM-3 increases in abundance at later time points
  • [#Human milk lipids] - #Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and #Sphingomyelin contribute up to 40% of all MFGM #Phospholipids, which are subject to intra-individual variation, especially during early lactation
  • [#Human milk lipids, #Sphingomyelin] -The outer MFG membrane also contains most of the sphingomyelins, for which many bactericidal activities against human opportunistic pathogens are described.
  • [#Human milk lipids] [#Infants] - HMLs also include several compounds that are essential for infant development. For example, phosphorylated lipids, glycosylated lipids, short- and long-chain fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids[8], and several fat-soluble vitamins
  • [1.18] [#Human milk oligosaccharides
    - HMOs include 2’Fucosyllactose (2’FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3’Sialyllactose (3’SL) and 6’Sialyllactose (6’SL)
  • [1.19] [#Acute lymphoblastic leukemia] [#Cesarean section, #Cessation of breastfeeding, #Socio-economic status
    - The risk of BCP-ALL is increased by caesarean section (C-section) birth, brief or absent breastfeeding and paucity of social contacts during infancy. - these social risk factors are shared with type 1 diabetes and allergies, raising the possibility of a common underlying immune priming deficit.
  • - Lack of exclusive breastfeeding and early cessation is associated with reduced relative abundance of #Bifidobacterium spp and lower stool levels of #Acetate.
  • [#Infants] - #Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) facilitate the expansion of #Bifidobacterium species, which have an instrumental role in the development of T cell-dependent IgA responses and have been linked to higher numbers of memory B cells during infancy
  • [#Cessation of breastfeeding] - Although breast milk may temporarily suppress maturation of the gut microbiome during infancy, #Children who are predominantly breastfed develop a more mature gut microbiome by the second year of life.
  • [#Vaginally delivery] - At 6 weeks postpartum, the composition and structure of gut microbiota of #Cesarean section-delivered (CSD) #Infants differed from those of vaginally delivered (VD) #Infants, with decreased #Bacteroides and #Escherichia-#Shigella and increased #Klebsiella, #Veillonella, and #Enterococcus. - At 6 months postpartum, these delivery mode-induced microbial shifts were restored by exclusive breastfeeding, resulting in similar gut microbial profiles between VD and CSD #Infants who were exclusively breastfed and more variable gut microbial profiles between VD and CSD #Infants who were mixed fed.
  • [1.21
    - breastfed #Infants generally have a higher abundance of #Bifidobacterium and decreased abundance of #Bacteroides and #Firmicutes compared to non-breastfed #Infants
  • [1.22] [#Colorectal cancer
    - a significant association was observed between being breastfed and increased risk of high-risk adenomas under age 50. - breastfeding was associated with increased risk of CRC among participants aged ≤55 years.
  • [1.23
    - no significant κ-#Casein functional pathways enriched at 3 months, indicating that the early κ-#Casein breast milk content may be more important for early microbiota colonization.
  • [#Osteopontin] - the breast milk OPN content declined at 3 months, we suggest that early breast milk OPN plays a more important role in regulating the gut microbiota.
  • [#Parabacteroides distasonis] [#Osteopontin] [#Infants] - #Lactalbumin at 42 days, > positively correlated with P. distasonis. - #Lactalbumin have pointed to improved early immunity and intestinal mucosal barrier. - #Lactalbumin and OPN might jointly affect P. distasonis early in life to regulate infant immunity.
  • [#Parabacteroides distasonis] [#Osteopontin] - the breast milk OPN content was positively correlated with the abundance of P. distasonis > maintaining and protecting intestinal health and the gut barrier. - the effects of early breast milk OPN may last for several months, as there was still a positive correlation between the breast milk OPN content at 42 days and P. distasonis at 3 months
  • [#Veillonella parvula] [#Infants] - #sIgA content in human milk at 42 days was positively correlated with V. parvula. - #sIgA > regulate microbial colonization and the infant immune response
  • [1.24] [#Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
    - taxa associated with ABIS JIA had a significant association with shorter durations of breastfeeding, including #Acidaminococcales, #Prevotella 9, #Parabacteroides distasonis, and several ASVs belonging to #Bacteroides, #Veillonella parvula, #Turicibacter sanguinis, #Eggerthella lenta, and P. distasonis.
  • [#Juvenile idiopathic arthritis] - ABIS JIA were breastfed for a significantly shorter time.
  • [1.25] [#Gender
    - boys diagnosed with #Autism were over three times more likely to have been born to mothers who reported daily consumption of diet soda or #Aspartame during #Pregnancy or breastfeeding.
  • [1.26] [#Depression] [#Bifidobacterium breve, #Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri
    - #Probiotic L. reuteri PBS072 and B. breve BB077 > at days 45 and 90, significantly ameliorated the mothers’ mood, the breastfeeding quality and improved the baby’s cries.
  • [1.27
    - #Lysozyme is a component of human milk with concentrations as high as ~ 1 g/L at some stages of lactation
  • [1.28
    - Breastfed #Infants present a lower incidence and less severe forms of RSV lower respiratory infections.
  • [1.29] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - there is an inverse association between breastfeeding and developing IBD later in life

References Notes

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Common References

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