IL-6 {90000179}

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#UV radiation
    - #Lactic acid secreted by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17,938 can protect skin from UVB by suppressing pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines.
  • [1.2] [#Streptococcus agalactiae, #Streptococcus salivarius
    - For non-small cell #Lung cancer patients, S. salivarius and S. agalactiae react upon gastrointestinal-derived CD4+ T cells and effectively activate monocytes to secrete higher levels of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF, or so-called, the Th1- and Th17-skewed cytokines
  • [1.3] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Anti-TNF therapy
    - Dietary #Palmitoleic acid (POA) repaired gut mucosal barriers, reduced inflammatory cell infiltrations and expressions of TNF-α and IL-6, and improved efficacy of anti-TNF-α therapy in both acute and chronic IBD mouse models.
  • [1.4
    - #Desulfovibrionaceae, one of the main intestinal pathogenic bacteria producing endotoxin, has been found to induce the expression of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the intestinal epithelium.
  • [1.5] [#Autism
    - #Bifidobacterium callitrichidarum was the sixth most enriched taxon when IL-6 was in lower concentration.
  • [#Autism] - #Prevotella copri was the second most enriched taxon when IL-6 was in lower concentration and the sixth most enriched taxon when TGF-β was in lower concentration.
  • - #Bifidobacterium longum, have been observed to downregulate IL-6 in fetal human enterocytes in vitro
  • [1.6
    - The severity of #Periodontal disease increased the frequency of activated microglia in the brains on day 30 by 36%. - heat-inactivated PD-associated total bacteria and #Klebsiella variicola increased the expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, TLR2, and TLR9 in microglial cells. - Incubation of microglia with #Klebsiella variicola increased the Aβ-phagocytosis by 394% and the expression of the phagocytic receptor MSR1 by 33-fold compared to the non-activated cells
  • [1.7] [#Anorexia nervosa, #Bipolar disorder] [#Enterobacteriaceae bacterium
    - #Cloacibacillus, an amino-acid-fermenting bacterium, and IL-6 in BD patients.
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - serum IL-6 levels were found to be positively correlated with #Enterobacter, #Pseudomonas and #Leuconostoc abundance, but negatively correlated with #Cloacibacillus abundance in BD patients.
  • [#Depression] [#TNF-alfa] - #Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by #Veillonella could stimulate the release of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and #IL-10 within Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways
  • [1.8] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - #Bacteroidetes produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are interestingly offensive to the gut mucosal barrier and play a role in retina inflammation by increasing interleukin-6 (IL-6)
  • [1.9] [#Systemic lupus erythematosus
    - SLE patients displayed higher serum levels of #IL-2 and IL-6. - The abundance of #Roseburia and #Faecalibacterium was inversely correlated with IL-6, the abundance of #Roseburia had a negative correlation with #IL-2, and the abundance of #Bacteroides had a positive correlation with #IL-2.
  • [#Systemic lupus erythematosus] - #Lactobacillus treatment decreased IL-6 and increased #IL-10 production in the gut contributing to an anti-inflammatory environment.
  • - prevention of cytokine storm in ill patients > by #Polyphenols and #Phytosterols, which, through their effects on macrophages, inhibit the secretion of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1-beta (IL-1ß), #IL-2, IL-6, γ-interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) reducing inflammation caused by hyperactivation of cytokines
  • [1.11
    - Different commensal microbes produce unique complement of Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands, which activate PRRs differently (specific PRRs and combinations), resulting in differential production of cytokines (i.e. IL-6 and TNF-α) by macrophages.
  • [1.12] [#Otitis Media] [#Candida albicans] [#IL-1b, #TNF-alfa
    - introducing C. albicans into the guts of mice, a greater degree of ear swelling occurred accompanied by higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the ear
  • [1.13] [#Autism] [#Bifidobacterium animalis, #Lactobacillus acidophilus, #Lactobacillus plantarum, #Streptococcus thermophilus
    - Sptreptococcus thermophilus, #Bifidobacterium breve, B. animalis, #Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, and L. paracacei > attenuated the inflammatory responses in a VPA-induced rodent ASD model. - psychobiotic treatment decreased serum pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6 levels, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine, #IL-10 levels, with the improved status of diverse behavior tests including social interaction, #Anxiety, and repetitive behaviors
  • [#TNF-alfa] - anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and #IL-10) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, #IL-1b, #IL-2, IL-6, #IL-8, #IL-12, #IL-17, and #IL-18) are significantly changed by #Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)
  • [#TNF-alfa] - #Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is known to strengthen the gut permeability barrier by fortifying intestinal tight junctions, mucin layer thickness, and antigen-specific immunoglobulin A production. - L. rhamnosus GG administrated participants showed a significant decrease in the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, #IL-12 p70, and TNF-α).
  • [1.14
    - IL-6 induces bone resorption and stimulates synthesis of acute phase proteins, chemokines, and PGE2. - IL-6 induces #Oxidative stress and can lead to a transient accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria and consequently to mitochondrial damage. - IL-6 also affects the process of invasion and metastasis by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). - IL-6 upregulates the expression of various adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules (ELAMs), which cause adhesion of tumor cells to endothelial cells, and therefore have an impact on tumors spreading. - Most genes that are targeted by IL-6 are involved in cell cycle progression and suppression of apoptosis. By influencing anti-apoptotic pathways, IL-6 may have an impact on #Cancer development.
  • [#IL-1b, #Lipopolysaccharide, #TNF-alfa] - #Fusobacterium nucleatum LPS-activated inflammatory cytokines are include IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. The chronic inflammatory process leads to the loss of periodontal attachment and tissue damage
  • [#IL-1b, #TNF-alfa] - Periodontal pathogens affect growth of local concentrations of various cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, #IL-17, #IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-8 and MMP-9
  • [1.15] [#Lipopolysaccharide, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs, especially #Propionic acid, and #Butyric acid, can inhibit the expressions of cytokines IL-6 and #IL-12 induced by LPS in human mature dendritic cells.
  • [1.16] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - the LPS derived from the feces of mice kept on the #Phytoestrogen-free diet induced significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, #IL-12/23, and CXCL1 compared to the LPS derived from feces of mice kept on the #Isoflavone-diet.
  • [1.17] [#Rheumatoid Arthritis
    - #Prevotella, #Ruminococcaceae and #Clostridia were associated with RA because they induce the inflammatory response mediated by IL-6, #IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokines
  • [1.18] [#Cancer
    - #Streptococcus pyogenes and lymphangioma: These mediate immune cell sensitization. - Triggered cells that invade the neoplasm, inhibit further growth and minimize lymphangioma > amounts of lymphocytes and neutrophils, and also macrophages, are quickly increasing on the first day after administration of the suspension. - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), IL-6, #IL-8, and NK cell levels also increased.
  • [1.19] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - #Resveratrol, which is currently under investigation in several clinical trials for AD, has demonstrated to possess remarkable immunomodulatory properties in immune cell populations highly relevant in the context of the disease. It inhibited microglia activation, proliferation and cytokine production (IL-6 and TNF-α)
  • - #Resveratrol and #Resveratrol-related PCs (e.g. pterostilbene) have further demonstrated to alleviate intestinal inflammation in mice with #Colitis by regulating the Th17/Treg balance and control the levels of plasmatic and intestinal mucosal cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), IL-6, #IL-10 and #IL-17, restoring the percentage of CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and decrease their number in the intestinal LP, as well as reducing the percentage of macrophages in both regions
  • - Inhibition of Th17 cells’ differentiation by #Curcumin further entails down-regulating IL-6 and IL-21 as well as STAT3 phosphorylation
  • - the flavanone #Pinocembrin was able to suppress microglia activation and consequent production of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α, while also decreasing the expression of TLR4 and its downstream target proteins TRIF and myeloid differentiation primary response.
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - #Resveratrol exposes its neuroimmunomodulatory properties, being able to suppress microglia activation and decrease the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and their receptors’ expression in the SNpc of mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD
  • [#Amyloid-beta] - a deficiency in #Vitamin A leads to an elevation in serum pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in APP/PS1 mice. - supplementation of #Vitamin A results in a decrease in these cytokines. - TNF-α has the ability to stimulate γ-secretase activity, which subsequently leads to an increased synthesis of Aβ peptides
  • [1.21] [#Chronic kidney disease
    - #TMAO was also able to significantly induce IL-6 release alone from renal fibroblast, strengthening the link to renal #Fibrosis.

References Notes

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