Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Irritable bowel syndrome {40000135}

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Irritable bowel syndrome


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- Oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 normalized sensitivity to colorectal distension in a rat model of post-inflammatory colonic hypersensitivity (1)

- The probiotic B. infantis 35624 reduced CRD-induced visceral pain behaviors in both rat strains. It significantly increased the threshold pressure of the first pain behavior and also reduced the total number pain behaviors during CRD (2)

- Purine metabolism is the novel host-microbial metabolic pathway in IBS (4)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Mice colonized with IBS+A microbiota developed faster gastrointestinal transit and anxiety‐like behavior (longer step‐down latency) compared to mice with HC microbiota. - Saccharomyces boulardii administration normalized gastrointestinal transit and anxiety‐like behavior in mice with IBS+A microbiota. Step‐down latency correlated with colonic Trpv1 expression and was associated with altered microbiota profile and increased Indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) levels.
  • [1.2
    - Individuals with severe IBS consumed a higher proportion of food items that can be considered as low quality (“less healthy”) as part of their main meals. - IBS severity is associated with altered gut microbiota hydrogen function in correlation with microbiota enzymes involved in animal carbohydrate metabolism.
  • [1.3] [#Staphylococcus aureus
    - Staphylococcal bacterial infection and bacterial toxins can trigger an immune response that leads to the production of dietary-antigen-specific IgE antibodies in mice, which are limited to the intestine. - Following subsequent oral ingestion of the respective dietary antigen, an IgE- and mast-cell-dependent mechanism induced increased visceral pain. -This aberrant pain signalling resulted from histamine receptor H1-mediated sensitization of visceral afferents. - Injection of food antigens (gluten, wheat, soy and milk) into the rectosigmoid mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome induced local oedema and mast cell activation.
  • [1.4
    - Streptococci and clostridia were associated with an increased risk. - Clostridium perfringens is a well-known enteric pathogen and streptococci have been previously associated with irritable bowel syndrome. - Demographic risk factors included a family history of irritable bowel syndrome and antibiotic use. - Half of those affected said that their parents or siblings had bowel disease, and 75% of those affected said they had taken antibiotics in the past year.
  • [1.5] [#Human milk oligosaccharides
    - Patients had a significant improvement from baseline to 12 weeks in total percentage of bowel movements. - Improvement was similar across IBS subtypes. Symptoms improved most in the first 4 weeks of intervention. - The most common side effects were mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal pain and discomfort, and distension.
  • [1.6
  • [1.7
    - Irritable bowel syndrome patients had lower urinary Phosphatidyl choline acyl-alkyl C38:6, dopamine and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. - Levels of some urinary metabolites including histamine correlated significantly with irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity scores.
  • [1.8] [#Clostridium difficile infection, #Inflamatory bowel disease
    - Combining human variables and gut microbiota achieved the best performances in predicting IBD, IBS, CDI, and unhealthy status, indicating independent associations between gut microbiota and these diseases.
  • [1.9
    - In IBS > The three most abundant bacteriophage clusters belonged to the #Siphoviridae, #Myoviridae, and #Podoviridae families (Order #Caudovirales).
  • [1.11
    - Transplantation of feces from IBS-C patients to healthy mice would cause gut microbiota imbalance by reducing Firmicutes and increasing Bacteroides and Akkermansia. - the abundance of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, as well as Enterobacteria was increased.
  • - In IBS patients, the GABAergic system is disrupted, and the levels of glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2), #GABA, and #GABA receptors(including type B1 and B2) are decreased, while #GABA transporter-2 (GAT-2) is increased in IBS-D patients
  • - #Histamine level in the colon was increased in IBS cases
  • [#kynurenine] -IBS > the level of neuroprotective #kynurenic acid (KynA) and the ratio of KynA/Kyn were reduced
  • [1.12
    - Bacterial #Histamine acts by attracting mast cells to the colon through activation of the #Histamine 4 receptor. - #Klebsiella aerogenes, present in the gut microbiota of many patients with IBS, as the main bacterial producer of #Histamine.
  • [1.13
    - The relative abundance of #Prevotella copri within IBS was significantly correlated with increased abdominal pain
  • [1.14] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Bile Acids, #Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - Reduced BA deconjugation is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including #Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and #Crohn’s disease (CD), as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • [1.15
    - #Tryptamine induces the release of the neurotransmitter 5-HT, a #Serotonin of enterochromaffin cells. - 5-HT can work on the enteric nervous system to stimulate gastrointestinal motility such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • [1.16
    - symptom severity is related to characteristic alterations of gut microbiota, including reduced diversity, reduced exhaled methane, relative reduction of #Methanobacteriales and #Prevotella enterotype, and abundance of #Bacteroides enterotype. - #Bacteroides were found to be increased in patients with IBS-D and were associated with mucosal low-grade inflammation.
  • - a recent meta-analysis identified low levels of #Propionate and #Butyrate in feces from patients with IBS-C, as compared with healthy controls, and a higher proportion of #Butyrate in fecal samples of patients with IBS-D, as compared with controls
  • - #Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 improves symptoms, modulates gut microbiota structure and function through the reduction of Rumicococcus with consequent increased levels of #Acetate and #Butyrate, and reduces intestinal immune activation in patients with IBS
  • [#Low FODMAP diet] - low fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet reduces fermentation, improving global symptoms as well as abdominal pain in patients with IBS, particularly with IBS-D, when compared with habitual diet or different dietary interventions[
  • - #Ruminococcus to be increased in IBS patients, suggesting even a potential role as a biomarker of this disorder
  • - in IBS is a prevalence of 36.8% in a cohort with culture-proven #Salmonella enteritidis infection.
  • [1.17
    - IBS was associated with differential abundance of bacterial taxa such as #Bacteroides dorei; metabolites including increased #Tyramine and decreased gentisate and hydrocinnamate; and transcripts related to fructooligosaccharide and polyol utilization.
  • [1.18] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - Increased levels of #Ceramides were reported in mucosal samples from IBS patients as well as in plasma and tissue samples in diabetes, cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance, #Atherosclerosis and #Steatohepatitis.
  • [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] [#Alistipes putredinis, #Anaerotruncus colihominis, #Clostridium asparagiforme, #Coprococcus catus, #Dorea formicigenerans, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii] - Nine bacterial species were selected to predict ME/CFS + IBS: F. prausnitzii, #Bacteroides vulgatus, A. putredinis, C. catus, #Anaerostipes caccae, D. formicigenerans, A. colihominis and C. asparagiforme.
  • [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] [#Ceramides] - patients with ME/CFS and IBS have increased plasma levels of ceramide.
  • [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] - Patients with ME/CFS and IBS also had higher plasma #Mannitol levels. - #Mannitol may increase permeability of both the gut mucosa and the blood-brain barrier resulting in trafficking of molecules such as cytokines and neurotransmitters that contribute to disease.
  • [1.19] [#Bipolar disorder, #Inflamatory bowel disease
    - IBS , #Celiac Disease and IBD have been associated with an increment in the risk of developing BD.
  • - patients diagnosed with both IBS and major #Depression, a twice daily dose of #Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 was administered and treated patients demonstrated reduced depressive phenotypes on multiple scales
  • [1.21
    - The altered composition of oral microbes correlates with the severity of IBS
  • [1.22] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#β-defensin 2
    - Inflammatory proteins such as human β-defensin 2, a bactericide, have been identified as a useful fecal biomarker in IBS and IBD
  • [#Propionic acid, #Short Chain Fatty Acid] - the concentration difference in two SCFAs, propionic minus #Butyric acid, has been shown to be positive for all four IBS subtypes but negative in healthy subjects
  • - Enriched #Ruminococcus is associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • [1.23] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome
    - ME/CFS is a multifactorial condition that is also often associated with comorbid conditions including, but not limited to, IBS and #Fibromyalgia.
  • [1.24
    - IBS patients have increased levels of the bacterial families #Enterobacteriaceae, #Lactobacillaceae, and #Bacteroidales, whereas #Bifidobacterium, #Faecalibacterium, and #Clostridiales were decreased compared with healthy controls.
  • - IBS was typified by enhanced quantities of #Firmicutes and specifically in #Ruminococcus, #Clostridium, and #Dorea, along with a distinct decrease of beneficial microbes, such as #Bifidobacterium and #Faecalibacterium spp
  • - #Purine starvation has been identified as a potential novel mechanism underlying IBS with lower fecal #Hypoxanthine abundance in IBS-C and IBS-D.
  • - increased #Tryptophan in the gut may lead to loosened stool, and #Tryptophan-related signaling may travel to the posterior insula and increase pain perception and emotional salience in IBS-D, thereby suggesting a “bottom-up” signaling direction.
  • [#Vitamin B6, #Vitamin D] - deficiency in levels of both vitamins D and B6 have emerged as causative factors in IBS symptoms pathogenesis.
  • [1.25] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    - Repeated FMT had a greater impact on symptoms and quality of life than a single FMT. - Administrating donor’s transplant to the small intestine had a higher efficacy, and led to long-term colonization of beneficial bacteria than administrating the donor’s transplant to the large intestine.
  • [1.26
    #Veillonella levels have been found to be higher in patients with irritable bowel syndrome
  • [1.27] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Ruminococcus gnavus] [#High fibre diet
    - fiber intervention significantly suppressed #Tryptamine and #Phenethylamine levels and abundances of R. gnavus in T2D subjects, revealing manipulation of gut microbiota-derived #Tryptamine and #Phenethylamine by dietary changes or prebiotics is a potential direction for managing #Metabolic syndrome and IBS.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Ruminococcus gnavus] - #Tryptamine and phenethylamine derived from the R. gnavus-mediated catabolism on dietary amino acids impaired insulin sensitivity via activation of TAAR1-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway axis, thereby contributing to insulin resistance in gut dysbiosis-associated IBS and T2D.
  • [1.28
    - Bifidobacterium infantis seems to be effective in human studies with IBS patients by changing plasma proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio.
  • [1.29
    - sever of irritable bowel disease symptoms > low dietary #Vitamin B6 intake
  • - #Gastroparesis (delayed stomach emptying), #Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), and #Constipation were associated with over double the risk of #Parkinson’s Disease in the 5 years preceding the diagnosis, while IBS without #Diarrhea was associated with a 17 per cent higher risk
  • [1.31] [#Fructooligosaccharides, #humanized Galactooligosaccharides
    - IBS symptoms improvement after consuming 5 g/day FOS for 6 weeks [101] or 3.5 g/day GOS for 12 weeks
  • [1.32] [#Probiotic
  • [1.33
    - There is currently no evidence that bacterial #Serotonin production contributes to the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • [1.34] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - 74.9% of IBS patients had used antibiotics up to 1 year prior to diagnosis, compared to 57.8% in controls. - developing IBS were more than twofold higher for those who had used antibiotics. - The risk was highest among people with multiple antibiotics dispensations.

References Notes

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Common References