Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Irritable bowel syndrome {40000135}

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Irritable bowel syndrome


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- Oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 normalized sensitivity to colorectal distension in a rat model of post-inflammatory colonic hypersensitivity (1)

- The probiotic B. infantis 35624 reduced CRD-induced visceral pain behaviors in both rat strains. It significantly increased the threshold pressure of the first pain behavior and also reduced the total number pain behaviors during CRD (2)

- Purine metabolism is the novel host-microbial metabolic pathway in IBS (4)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Mice colonized with IBS+A microbiota developed faster gastrointestinal transit and anxiety‐like behavior (longer step‐down latency) compared to mice with HC microbiota. - Saccharomyces boulardii administration normalized gastrointestinal transit and anxiety‐like behavior in mice with IBS+A microbiota. Step‐down latency correlated with colonic Trpv1 expression and was associated with altered microbiota profile and increased Indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) levels.
  • [1.2
    - Individuals with severe IBS consumed a higher proportion of food items that can be considered as low quality (“less healthy”) as part of their main meals. - IBS severity is associated with altered gut microbiota hydrogen function in correlation with microbiota enzymes involved in animal carbohydrate metabolism.
  • [1.3] [#Staphylococcus aureus
    - Staphylococcal bacterial infection and bacterial toxins can trigger an immune response that leads to the production of dietary-antigen-specific IgE antibodies in mice, which are limited to the intestine. - Following subsequent oral ingestion of the respective dietary antigen, an IgE- and mast-cell-dependent mechanism induced increased visceral pain. -This aberrant pain signalling resulted from histamine receptor H1-mediated sensitization of visceral afferents. - Injection of food antigens (gluten, wheat, soy and milk) into the rectosigmoid mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome induced local oedema and mast cell activation.
  • [1.4
    - Streptococci and clostridia were associated with an increased risk. - Clostridium perfringens is a well-known enteric pathogen and streptococci have been previously associated with irritable bowel syndrome. - Demographic risk factors included a family history of irritable bowel syndrome and antibiotic use. - Half of those affected said that their parents or siblings had bowel disease, and 75% of those affected said they had taken antibiotics in the past year.
  • [1.5] [#Human milk oligosaccharides
    - Patients had a significant improvement from baseline to 12 weeks in total percentage of bowel movements. - Improvement was similar across IBS subtypes. Symptoms improved most in the first 4 weeks of intervention. - The most common side effects were mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal pain and discomfort, and distension.
  • [1.6
  • [1.7
    - Irritable bowel syndrome patients had lower urinary Phosphatidyl choline acyl-alkyl C38:6, dopamine and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. - Levels of some urinary metabolites including histamine correlated significantly with irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity scores.
  • [1.8] [#Clostridium difficile infection, #Inflamatory bowel disease
    - Combining human variables and gut microbiota achieved the best performances in predicting IBD, IBS, CDI, and unhealthy status, indicating independent associations between gut microbiota and these diseases.
  • [1.9
    - In IBS > The three most abundant bacteriophage clusters belonged to the #Siphoviridae, #Myoviridae, and #Podoviridae families (Order #Caudovirales).
  • [1.11
    - Transplantation of feces from IBS-C patients to healthy mice would cause gut microbiota imbalance by reducing Firmicutes and increasing Bacteroides and Akkermansia. - the abundance of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, as well as Enterobacteria was increased.
  • - In IBS patients, the GABAergic system is disrupted, and the levels of glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2), #GABA, and #GABA receptors(including type B1 and B2) are decreased, while #GABA transporter-2 (GAT-2) is increased in IBS-D patients
  • - #Histamine level in the colon was increased in IBS cases
  • [#kynurenine] -IBS > the level of neuroprotective #kynurenic acid (KynA) and the ratio of KynA/Kyn were reduced
  • [1.12
    - Bacterial #Histamine acts by attracting mast cells to the colon through activation of the #Histamine 4 receptor. - #Klebsiella aerogenes, present in the gut microbiota of many patients with IBS, as the main bacterial producer of #Histamine.
  • [1.13
    - The relative abundance of #Prevotella copri within IBS was significantly correlated with increased abdominal pain
  • [1.14] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Bile Acids, #Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - Reduced BA deconjugation is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including #Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and #Crohn’s disease (CD), as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • [1.15
    - #Tryptamine induces the release of the neurotransmitter 5-HT, a #Serotonin of enterochromaffin cells. - 5-HT can work on the enteric nervous system to stimulate gastrointestinal motility such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • [1.16
    - symptom severity is related to characteristic alterations of gut microbiota, including reduced diversity, reduced exhaled methane, relative reduction of #Methanobacteriales and #Prevotella enterotype, and abundance of #Bacteroides enterotype. - #Bacteroides were found to be increased in patients with IBS-D and were associated with mucosal low-grade inflammation.
  • - a recent meta-analysis identified low levels of #Propionate and #Butyrate in feces from patients with IBS-C, as compared with healthy controls, and a higher proportion of #Butyrate in fecal samples of patients with IBS-D, as compared with controls
  • - #Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 improves symptoms, modulates gut microbiota structure and function through the reduction of Rumicococcus with consequent increased levels of #Acetate and #Butyrate, and reduces intestinal immune activation in patients with IBS
  • [#Low FODMAP diet] - low fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet reduces fermentation, improving global symptoms as well as abdominal pain in patients with IBS, particularly with IBS-D, when compared with habitual diet or different dietary interventions[
  • - #Ruminococcus to be increased in IBS patients, suggesting even a potential role as a biomarker of this disorder
  • - in IBS is a prevalence of 36.8% in a cohort with culture-proven #Salmonella enteritidis infection.
  • [1.17
    - IBS was associated with differential abundance of bacterial taxa such as #Bacteroides dorei; metabolites including increased #Tyramine and decreased gentisate and hydrocinnamate; and transcripts related to fructooligosaccharide and polyol utilization.
  • [1.18] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - Increased levels of #Ceramides were reported in mucosal samples from IBS patients as well as in plasma and tissue samples in diabetes, cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance, #Atherosclerosis and #Steatohepatitis.
  • [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] [#Alistipes putredinis, #Anaerotruncus colihominis, #Clostridium asparagiforme, #Coprococcus catus, #Dorea formicigenerans, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii] - Nine bacterial species were selected to predict ME/CFS + IBS: F. prausnitzii, #Bacteroides vulgatus, A. putredinis, C. catus, #Anaerostipes caccae, D. formicigenerans, A. colihominis and C. asparagiforme.
  • [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] [#Ceramides] - patients with ME/CFS and IBS have increased plasma levels of ceramide.
  • [#Chronic fatigue syndrome] - Patients with ME/CFS and IBS also had higher plasma #Mannitol levels. - #Mannitol may increase permeability of both the gut mucosa and the blood-brain barrier resulting in trafficking of molecules such as cytokines and neurotransmitters that contribute to disease.
  • [1.19
    - Bifidobacterium infantis seems to be effective in human studies with IBS patients by changing plasma proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio.

References Notes

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Common References