Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Lithocholic acid {90000159}

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Lithocholic acid
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Structural Type:[  ]
Functional Type:
Anti-cancer, Oncogenesis


- Lithocholic acid (LCA) is one of the most toxic secondary bile acids produced in the intestine, and the elevated levels of LCA induce cholestatic liver damage in rodents.

Shared Notes

  • [1.2
    - Lithocholic acid can inhibit BC progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and other proteins involved in the antioxidant defense system.
  • [1.3
    - Bile acid > gut-residing bacteria produce metabolite 3-oxolithocholic acid (3-oxoLCA) > inhibits TH17 (inhibitory) cell differentiation.
    - Secondary bile acid lithocholic acid > gut bacteria > 3-oxoLCA as well as the abundant gut metabolite isolithocholic acid (isoLCA).
    - IsoLCA suppressed TH17 differentiation by inhibiting RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γt), a key TH17 cell-promoting transcription factor.
    - Levels of both 3-oxoLCA and isoLCA and the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSDH) genes required for their biosynthesis were significantly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).
    - levels of these bile acids were inversely correlated with expression of TH17 cell-associated genes.
    - bacterially produced TH17 cell-inhibitory bile acids may reduce the risk of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as IBD
  • [1.1
    - Butyrate producing bacteria such as Eubacterium spp. are capable of transforming primary BAs to secondary BAs such as: lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid, which are potentially cytotoxic and have been linked to colorectal cancer and cholesterol GS formation.

Common References