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Lithocholic acid {90000159}

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Lithocholic acid
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Initialisation date:
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Meta Information

Structural Type:[  ]
Functional Type:
Anti-cancer, Oncogenesis


- Lithocholic acid (LCA) is one of the most toxic secondary bile acids produced in the intestine, and the elevated levels of LCA induce cholestatic liver damage in rodents.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Lithocholic acid can inhibit #Breast cancer progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and other proteins involved in the antioxidant defense system.
  • [1.2] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - Bile acid > gut-residing bacteria produce metabolite #3-oxolithocholic acid (3-oxoLCA) > inhibits TH17 (inhibitory) cell differentiation. - Secondary bile acid lithocholic acid > gut bacteria > 3-oxoLCA as well as the abundant gut metabolite #Isolithocholic acid (isoLCA). - IsoLCA suppressed TH17 differentiation by inhibiting RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γt), a key TH17 cell-promoting transcription factor. - Levels of both 3-oxoLCA and isoLCA and the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSDH) genes required for their biosynthesis were significantly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). - levels of these #Bile Acids were inversely correlated with expression of TH17 cell-associated genes. - bacterially produced TH17 cell-inhibitory #Bile Acids may reduce the risk of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as IBD
  • [1.3] [#Bile Acids
    - Butyrate producing bacteria such as #Eubacterium spp. are capable of transforming primary BAs to secondary BAs such as: lithocholic acid and #Deoxycholic acid, which are potentially cytotoxic and have been linked to #Colorectal cancer and cholesterol GS formation.
  • [1.4] [#Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - Primary #Bile Acids are conjugated in several different forms and secreted into the intestine. - a small portion (~5%) of the Primary #Bile Acids (about 200 to 800 mg daily in humans) escapes the reabsorption in Ileum and reaches the colon where gut bacteria convert them into secondary #Bile Acids (SBAs), such as #Deoxycholic acid (DCA), #Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and lithocholic acid (LCA). - majority (90% to 95%) of SBAs are reabsorbed into colonocytes to return to the liver for detoxification and recycling.
  • [1.5
    - higher concentrations of #Deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and #Cholic acid (CA) in feces in #Stroke patients are associated with higher survival after #Stroke.
  • [1.6] [#Rheumatoid Arthritis] [#Parabacteroides distasonis
    - Oral treatment of arthritic mice with live P. distasonis (LPD) considerably ameliorated RA pathogenesis. - LPD-derived lithocholic acid (LCA), #Deoxycholic acid (DCA), #Isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) and #3-oxolithocholic acid (3-oxoLCA) had similar and synergistic effects on the treatment of RA. - A specific synthetic inhibitor of bile salt hydrolase attenuated the antiarthritic effects of LPD by reducing the production of these four bile acids.

References Notes

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Common References