Disease ⇒ Crohn’s disease {40000108}

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Crohn’s disease


Initialisation date:
Other Terms:
Regional Enteritis, Granulomatous Ileitis, Granulomatous Ileocolitis


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MedDra ID:
MedDra Level:
ICD:[  ]
Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
Zone:[  ]
Mechanism:[  ]


- Fucose (type of Sugar) > 1,2-propanediol > AIEC (type of E. Coli) > Propionate > Inflamation of Gut wall
- Reducing of Fucose ( type of Sugar) may ameliorate the Inflammation of Crohn’s disease.

- In Crohn’s disease, there is increased abundance for degradation of glycosaminoglycans and B-vitamin biosynthesis.
- There is a decrease in abundance of methanogenesis , antimicrobial peptide response , and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. (1)

- Prior use of antibiotics is associated with a nearly 2 times increased risk of developing IBD compared with no prior use. (2)

- Patients with Crohn’s disease has significantly higher levels of the fungus Candida tropicalis and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens than their healthy relatives.
-These three organisms interacted in a strategic way to form robust, pathogenic biofilms capable of driving intestinal inflammation (4)

- Electron microscopy showed that E. coli fuse to the C. tropicalis growths. Meanwhile S. marcescens make protein strings that somehow stabilize the biofilm. (5)

- Patients with Crohn NULLs disease showed significantly higher levels of the fungus Candida tropicalis and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens than their healthy relatives. Further in vitro studies showed that these three organisms interacted "in a strategic way" to form robust, pathogenic biofilms capable of driving intestinal inflammation. (6)

- Patients with Crohn’s disease showed significantly higher levels of the fungus Candida tropicalis and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens than their healthy relatives. Further in vitro studies showed that these three organisms interacted "in a strategic way" to form robust, pathogenic biofilms capable of driving intestinal inflammation. (13)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - The microbiome in the inflamed and proximal noninflamed ileal mucosa do not differ according to alpha diversity or beta diversity.
  • [1.2
    - Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) are enriched in the intestinal microbiota of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and promote intestinal inflammation.
  • [1.3] [#Escherichia coli] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    - Comprehensive overview of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during IBD activity showed increases in facultative anaerobes, such as E. coli which correlates with inflammation status, and decreases in obligate anaerobes, such as #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Roseburia hominis -The results of the present study confirmed decreases in the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, increases in Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Veillonellaceae and the presence of Fusobacterium in stool samples of CD patients. - #Butyrate-producing bacteria are depleted in IBD patients, and probiotic treatment with these bacteria has therapeutic potential. - A higher proportion of #Lachnospiraceae in donor stool was associated with a higher success rate of FMT, and recipients that responded to FMT exhibited increases in #Butyrate-producing #Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. - The reduced SCFA levels in patients with IBD result from lower abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria, especially those of the phylum Firmicutes. - #Butyrate can act as an energy source for normal colon epithelial cells, promoting their proliferation, but can also inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis.
  • [1.4] [#Multiple Sclerosis, #Rheumatoid Arthritis
    - Significantly lower abundances of Coprococcus in CD, Dialister in MS, and Roseburia in RA.
  • [1.5
    - #Debaryomyces hansenii preferentially localized to and was abundant within incompletely healed intestinal wounds of mice and inflamed mucosal tissues of CD human subjects. - D. hansenii cultures from injured mice and inflamed CD tissues impaired colonic healing when introduced into injured conventionally raised or gnotobiotic mice. - Mechanistically, D. hansenii impaired mucosal healing through the myeloid cell–specific type 1 interferon–CCL5 axis.
  • [1.6] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - The blood–brain barrier allows the access of #Tryptophan. - In IBD, especially in CD patients, TRP metabolism increases; consequently, the amino acid levels are reduced with respect to normal healthy individuals, and these changes correlate with the gravity of the disease. - TRP undergoes two major metabolic host pathways, the #kynurenine (KYN) and #Serotonin (5-HT) biosynthetic pathways, and one microbial pathway to produce #Indole and its derivatives.
  • [1.7] [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#High fibre diet
    - Long-term intake of fibers from fruit > protective against the development of CD, but not of UC
  • [1.8
    - Gut species found to be significantly depleted in CD compared to control include: #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , #Roseburia inulinivorans and #Alistipes senegalensis. - While #Clostridium nexile and #Ruminococcus gnavus were found to be enriched.
  • - Microbial #Arginine and isoprene pathways were found at a higher relative abundance level in gut microbiome of Crohn’s disease.
  • - The oral microbe #Streptococcus salivarius was found to be enriched and of concordant strains in the gut and oral microbiome of Crohn’s disease subjects. This was more likely in CD subjects with higher Crohn’s Disease Activity Index and active disease status (Diarrhoea/abdominal pain/blood-in-stool/fever and fatigue).
  • [1.9
    - #Bacteroides vulgatus is both directly associated with Th17 immunity and has a higher abundance in active CD relative to non-IBD controls. - The increase of #Bacteroides vulgatus abundance in active CD can induce more Th17 cells that in turn might worsen IBD inflammation.
  • [#Escherichia coli] - Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC), > prevalent in up to half the individuals with Crohn’s Disease (CD) - Among the genes related to AIEC pathogenicity, fim has the potential to generate an inflammatory reaction from the intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, as it interacts with TLR4, inducing the production of inflammatory cytokines independently of LPS.
  • [1.11] [#Condition of chronic stress
    - Stress-exposed mice > develop ileal dysbiosis, dominated by the expansion of #Enterobacteriaceae. - Stress-induced glucocorticoids promote > apoptosis of CD45+CD90+ cells that normally produce #IL-22, a cytokine that is essential for the maintenance of ileal mucosal barrier integrity. - Blockade of glucocorticoid signaling or administration of recombinant #IL-22 > restores mucosal immunity, prevents ileal dysbiosis.
  • [1.12
  • [1.13] [#Colorectal cancer, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Common consumer products
    - #Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent found in thousands of consumer products > exacerbates #Colitis and #Colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis in animal models. - intestinal commensal microbes > microbial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes > mediate metabolic activation of #Triclosan in the colon > gut toxicology.
  • [1.14] [#Colitis] [#Candida tropicalis
    - C. tropicalis > induces dysbiosis that involves changes in the presence of mucin-degrading bacteria #Akkermansia muciniphila and #Ruminococcus gnavus > leading to altered tight junction protein expression with increased intestinal permeability > followed by induction of robust Th1/Th17 responses > lead to an accelerated proinflammatory phenotype in experimental colitic mice.
  • [1.15] [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] [#Western-style diet
    - Two commonly used emulsifiers, #Carboxymethylcellulose and #Polysorbate-80 > induce inflammation and metabolic changes, mediated by gut microbes.
  • [1.16] [#IG A
    - a portion of the microbiota-driven sIgA response is induced by and directed towards intestinal fungi. Analysis of the human gut mycobiota bound by sIgA revealed a preference for hyphae, a fungal morphotype associated with virulence. #Candida albicans was a potent inducer of IgA class-switch recombination among plasma cells, via an interaction dependent on intestinal phagocytes and hyphal programming. Characterization of sIgA affinity and polyreactivity showed that hyphae-associated virulence factors were bound by these antibodies and that sIgA influenced C. albicans morphotypes in the murine gut.
  • [1.17] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Salmonella typhimurium
    - adherent-invasive #Escherichia coli (AIEC), and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium > induce inflammation (through elevated T helper (TH) 1 and TH17 immune responses) in IBD animal model > fibrosis development. - in patients with Crohn’s disease, AIEC strains > ileal mucosa > trigger the initiation or perpetuation of the inflammatory disease.
  • [1.18] [#Candida albicans, #Candida glabrata, #Candida tropicalis
    - #Candida. A common, although not universal, finding has been an increase, statistically significant or trending, in the relative amount of #Candida in the fecal mycobiome of patients with CD from diverse geographic locations. - The named species is usually C. albicans, but C. tropicalis and C. glabrata have also been reported.
  • [1.19
  • [1.21] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Bile Acids, #Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - Reduced BA deconjugation is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including #Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), as well as #Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • [1.22] [#Acute anterior uveitis, #Ankylosing spondylitis, #HLA-B27-associated disease, #Psoriasis, #Psoriatic Arthritis, #Ulcerative Colitis
    - HLA-B27 transgenic rats that develop a spontaneous spondyloarthropathy-like illness do not develop disease when raised in a germ-free environment, but mono-association with #Phocaeicola vulgatus is sufficient to induce disease.
  • [1.23
    - Probiotic treatment with butyrate-producing bacteria has therapeutic potential since these bacteria are depleted in IBD patients and butyrate has beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function and overall gut health.
  • [1.24] [#Colorectal cancer] [#Bacteriophage, #Western-style diet
    - the abundance of a class of crAss-like phages, a group of related viruses that includes some of the most abundant viruses of the human gut, were higher in populations with non-westernized dietary habits - several types of crAss-like phages were present at decreased levels in people with #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Systemic lupus erythematosus, #Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn disease, and at increased levels in people with colon cancer.
  • [1.25] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - The common skin resident fungus #Malassezia restricta, is also linked to the presence of an IBD-associated polymorphism in the gene for CARD9, a signaling adaptor important for anti-fungal defense. - M. restricta elicits innate inflammatory responses largely through CARD9 and is recognized by Crohn’s disease patient anti-fungal antibodies. This yeast elicits strong inflammatory cytokine production from innate cells harboring the IBD-linked polymorphism in CARD9 and exacerbates colitis via CARD9 in mouse models of disease.
  • - The aggregated relative abundance of #Klebsiella species was significantly higher in patients with Crohn’s disease and #Primary sclerosing cholangitis when compared with healthy controls. - Several genes increased in the faecal microbiomes of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases > include hemolysin-coregulated protein and enzymes involved in fructose-, galactitol-, mannose-, and long-chain fatty acid-related uptake and metabolic pathways- were enriched in most faecal samples of the patients with inflammatory disease who carried #Klebsiella species.
  • [1.26] [#Clostridium cluster IV
    - #Roseburia, #Gemmiger, #Coprococcus, #Ruminococcus 2, #Butyricicoccus, #Dorea, #Fusicatenibacter, #Anaerostipes, Clostridium IV were enriched in the healthy controls. - #Blautia, Clostridium IV, #Coprococcus, #Dorea, #Fusicatenibacter continued to significantly decrease in early and advanced CD patients, and Escherichia/Shigella and Proteus continued to significantly increase. - negative correlation between #Dorea, #Butyricicoccus, #Roseburia and gland reduce, #Roseburia and FC, #Butyricicoccus and goblet cells decreased, Parabacterodies and sex, Clostridium IV and CRP, #Dorea and ESR . - positive correlation between Escherichia/Shigella and CRP, #Ruminococcus 2 and clinical symptoms.
  • - Escherichia/Shigella, #Enterococcus and #Proteus were enriched in the advanced CD patients.
  • - #Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and #Parabacteroides were enriched in the early CD patients.
  • [1.27
    - a reduction of a major member of Firmicutes, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, is associated with a higher risk of postoperative recurrence of ileal CD. - A lower proportion of F. prausnitzii on resected ileal Crohn mucosa also was associated with endoscopic recurrence at 6 months. - Oral administration of either live F. prausnitzii or its supernatant markedly reduced the severity of TNBS colitis and tended to correct the dysbiosis associated with TNBS colitis
  • [1.28
    - #Acylethanolamines were more abundant in stool from patients with CD, with an associated decrease in bacteria predicted to metabolize #Ethanolamine, further implicating #Ethanolamine-metabolizing microbes as guardians against gut inflammation and protectors of gut permeability.
  • - Patients with CD that previously underwent ileocecal valve resection showed a decline in fecal abundance of #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Butyrate
  • [1.29] [#Streptococcus salivarius
    - Oral S. salivarius was found to be enriched and of concordant strains in both intestinal and oral microbiota in Crohn’s disease patients, and the species diversity of the infected intestine was considerably depleted
  • [#Antibiotic Therapy] - oral antibiotics for #Acne are a risk factor for new onset Crohn’s disease
  • [1.31
    - The microbiome risk score (MRS) model yielded a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.24 and temporal validity by capturing individuals that developed CD up to five years prior to disease onset. The five most important taxa contributing to the MRS included #Ruminococcus torques, #Blautia, #Colidextribacter, an uncultured genus-level group from Oscillospiraceace, and #Roseburia.
  • [1.32] [#Dorea longicatena, #Ruminococcus lactaris
    - ileocolonic resection (ICR) in CD patients > amples collected at time of surgery were enriched in #Proteobacteria and harbored high levels of unusual, bacteria such as #Streptococcus mitis, #Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum, #Sphingomonas melonis and #Gemella haemolysans - 6 months after surgery samples had elevated proportions of anaerobic bacteria belonging to #Lachnospiraceae (#Clostridium nexile, #Blautia wexlereae, #Dorea longicatena). - Remission was characterized by increased levels of bacteria belonging to #Bacteroides, #Dorea, #Ruminococcus and #Dialister genera, whereas recurrence was associated with increased levels of #Gemmiger formicilis, #Enterococcus durans and #Ruminococcus lactaris.
  • [1.33
    - especially in Crohn’s disease, is the decreased abundance of #Firmicutes bacteria belonging to two families that are important functional members of the human gut microbiota─#Ruminococcaceae and #Lachnospiraceae─to which most #Butyrate-producing bacteria in the human gut belong.
  • [1.34
    - Colonization with CD-high fecal proteolytic activityled (CD-HPA) to a spontaneous proinflammatory immune tone and worsened experimental #Colitis in wild type and Nod2−/- mice, but not in mice with a PAR2 mutation that makes it resistant to cleavage by proteases, indicating the proinflammatory pathway requires intact PAR2 cleavage signaling.
  • - opportunistic pathogens were increased in CD-HPA colonized mice, such as #Romboutsia ilealis, that has been reported to be increased in an experimental #Colitis model.
  • - both adult and neonatal colonization of germ-free mice with high proteolytic activity feces from CD patients develop this functional phenotype in the intestine.
  • - genes upregulated in CD-HPA were involved in p38-MAPK and NFκB pathways known to be related to the release of key proinflammatory cytokines.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - CD-HPA microbiota from colonized mice was characterized by a decrease in known beneficial #Bacteria such as #Akkermansia muciniphila, #Alistipes putredinis, and #Ruminococcus bromii, previously shown to be reduced in IBD patients.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Escherichia coli, #Hungatella hathewayi] - H. hathewayi transcript as belonging to the TIGR02037 family, which includes both K04771 and K04772 . - Proteases from these families are found in pathogens, such as Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and #Helicobacter pylori, where they have been described as virulence factors, shown to degrade E-cadherin,Citation46 and hypothesized to cleave PAR2.
  • - Colonization of germ-free mice impacted 172 genes related to immune and barrier function, which is in agreement with previous work using mono-colonization with #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.
  • [1.35
    - Administration of PAGly exacerbated #Colitis in mouse model and upregulated coagulation-related biological processes. - High dietary protein intake and increased abundance of #Phenylacetic acid (PAA)-producing #Proteobacteria mediated by phenylpyruvate decarboxylase act in concert to cause the elevated PAGln levels in CD patients.
  • [1.36] [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis
    - The incidence of IBD was significantly higher in patients with #Migraine, CD and UC than in those without #Migraine. - After 5 years of follow-up, those with #Migraine showed curves implying cumulative incidences of IBD with a steep increase, especially for CD.
  • [1.37
    - Patients with axial #Spondyloarthritis (SpA), #Acute anterior uveitis (AAU), and Crohn’s disease > low abundances of #Lachnospiraceae taxa relative to controls, most notably #Fusicatenibacter, which was most abundant in controls receiving NSAID monotherapy and implied to partially mediate higher #Serum CRP.
  • - CD patients had higher abundances of a #Ruminococcus taxon and strongly depleted in a #Blautia ASV, and previous csDMARD therapy was associated with increased #Akkermansia.
  • [1.38] [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] [#Escherichia coli
    - Most UC, and to a lesser extent CD patients develop peri-nuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA). - These antibodies cross-react with the E. coli membrane porin C (#OmpC) protein, suggesting a possible role for B cell autoreactivity and gut microbial antigenic cross-reactivity in the pathogenesis of IBD
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] - CD, albeit not UC, is associated with increased serum levels of anti-#Flagellin IgG and IgA antibodies
  • [#Bacteroides fragilis] - B. fragilis metabolites promote barrier integrity, the prevalence of this bacteria has been associated with disease exacerbation in CD patients
  • [#Escherichia coli, #Saccharomyces cerevisiae] - CD patients have increased serum titers of antibodies against the E. coli membrane porin C (#OmpC), yeast S. cerevisiae #Mannose epitopes (ASCA) and bacterial flagellins (CBir) and both the presence and titers of these antibodies are associated with disease severity.
  • [1.39] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Proton pump inhibitors
    - regular use of PPIs consistently showed a significantly positive association with IBD, Crohn’s disease, and #Ulcerative Colitis risk - Direct comparison with H2 receptor antagonist, a less potent acid suppressor, showed that PPI use was also associated with higher IBD risk
  • [#Pancreatic Cancer] - #Malassezia > new pathogenic roles in #Seborrheic dermatitis, #Psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, and pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
  • [1.41
    - Lower plasma #Niacin levels have been observed in patients with Crohn’s disease
  • [1.42] [#Fructooligosaccharides
    - 15 g/day FOS for 3 weeks elevated #Bifidobacteria population in the feces and improved Crohn’s disease
  • [1.43
    - enteric-coated #Butyrate tablets administration effectively reduced ileocaecal inflammation and maintained clinical remission in Crohn’s disease patients.
  • [1.44] [#Colectomy
    - in CD patients > Six months after surgery, ten patients developed recurrence of CD lesions. Samples collected at time of surgery were enriched in #Proteobacteria and harbored high levels of unusual, bacteria such as #Streptococcus mitis, #Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum, #Sphingomonas melonis and #Gemella haemolysans, while 6 months after surgery samples had elevated proportions of anaerobic bacteria belonging to #Lachnospiraceae (#Clostridium nexile, #Blautia wexlereae, #Dorea longicatena). Remission was characterized by increased levels of bacteria belonging to Bacteroides, Dorea, Ruminococcus and Dialister genera, whereas recurrence was associated with increased levels of #Gemmiger formicilis, #Enterococcus durans and #Ruminococcus lactaris.
  • [1.45
    - new species #Selenobaculum gbiensis > a novel gram-negative, motile, obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, designated as strain ICN-92133T, was isolated from a fecal sample of a 26-year-old patient with Crohn’s disease. - Based on the 16s rRNA sequence of strain ICN-92133T, the phylogeny analysis placed the strain into the family #Selenomonadaceae, showing 93.91% similarity with the closely related #Massilibacillus massiliensis strain DSM 102838T.
  • [1.46] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - Among #Adult participants, the scientists found that those with #Atopic Dermatitis had a 34% increased risk of IBD, a 36% higher risk of Crohn’s disease, and a 32% increased risk of #Ulcerative Colitis.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] - #Children with #Atopic Dermatitis had a 44% increased risk of IBD and a 74% increased risk of CD, which increased with worsening AD; however, they did not have increased risk of UC except for those with severe AD.
  • [1.47] [#Parabacteroides distasonis
    - P. distasonis is recurrent in Crohn’s disease and elevated in #Ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
  • [1.48
    - patients with active CD have reduced numbers of M2-like macrophages, whereas patients with inactive CD have increased numbers of these cells
  • [1.49] [#Diabetes Type 1, #Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, #Psoriasis, #Sjögren syndrome
    Patients with psoriatic disease had a significantly higher risk of Crohn’s disease , #Ulcerative Colitis, #Systemic lupus erythematosus, #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Ankylosing spondylitis , #Alopecia areata, and type 1 diabetes. - the risk of #Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease, Sjögren’s syndrome, and #Systemic sclerosis was not significantly different between the groups.
  • - #Pelomonas > enriched in #Bladder cancer parenchyma, intestinal mucosa of Crohn’s disease patients, and non-pregnant women’s endometrium.
  • [1.51] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - IBD caused a high risk of breast cancers. - CD had a potential causal relationship with #Breast cancer.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Oral cancer, #Ulcerative Colitis] - CD and UC, as subtypes of IBD, were also found to be potential risk factors for oral cavity cancer
  • [1.52] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Hydrogen sulfide
    - pathological relevance between mitochondrial H2S detoxification and IBD was reported: impaired H2S detoxification pathways were observed in colon biopsy samples obtained from CD patients.
  • [#Hydrogen sulfide] - the relative abundance of H2S-producing bacteria was increased in stool samples from CD patients
  • [1.53] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Hydrogen sulfide
    - microbiome of IBD patients is particularly deficient in secreting metabolites containing sulfur - H2S consumer species are disproportionately lost in CD.
  • [#Hydrogen sulfide] - CD patients lack microbial community members to support a healthy H2S balance. - This gas is expected to have a protective effect in the gut when present in small amounts, but it disrupts the mucus layer and may cause inflammation when present in larger quantities
  • - links between #Roseburia intestinalis and CD confirmed.
  • [1.54] [#Ulcerative Colitis
    - in CD, progressive reductions in #Iron, hemoglobin, and albumin and concomitant increases in CRP, monocytes, and platelets were observed years before a diagnosis was made. - Similar results were observed in UC but for a much shorter time period prior to diagnosis.
  • [1.55] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    - S cerevisiae has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects against #Colitis in murine models - IBD patients and patients in flare present significantly less S cerevisiae. - mucosal-associated fungal studies have demonstrated an increase of S cerevisiae in noninflamed mucosa in CD patients
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - Ca dublinensis abundance was significantly higher only in patients with CD, it was clearly overrepresented in active IBD patients, and correlated strongly with serological markers of inflammation in our patients.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] [#Penicillium brevicompactum] - P brevicompactum was also very significantly depleted in UC and CD. - P brevicompactum is a filamentous fungus widely distributed throughout the natural world and is also used in the production of Mycophenolic acid, a compound that has anti-inflammatory effects in IBD (mycophenolate mofetil).
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] [#Saccharomyces pastorianus] - S pastorianus in IBD, since it was significantly depleted both in UC and CD patients in activity.
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] - the mycobiome at the genus level was different between UC and CD
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#Aspergillus aculeatus , #Aspergillus rubrobrunneus ] - A aculeatus was less abundant in UC, while A rubrobrunneus (A ruber) was significantly depleted in both UC and CD.
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] - Both UC and CD patients were markedly depleted in #Aspergillus
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#Debaryomyces hansenii] - patients with isolated ileal CD showed a marked increased abundance in D hansenii, a species previously related to CD pathogenesis. - D hansenii is enriched in inflamed ileal biopsies of patients with CD and impairs mucosal healing. - an enrichment in Debaromyces in patients with UC.
  • [#Candida albicans] - CD patients and their first-degree healthy relatives have been shown to be more frequently and heavily colonized by Ca albicans than control individuals, and ASCA levels correlate with Ca albicans colonization in relatives.
  • [#Candida albicans] [#Riboflavin, #Thiamin] - Ca albicans is largely overrepresented in inflammatory (B1) vs stricturing (B2) phenotypes, and it is actually the only species showing significant differences. - An increased abundance of Ca albicans in inflammatory CD (B1) is consistent with its proinflammatory effects described in several studies.
  • [#Candida tropicalis] - depletion of Ca tropicalis in patients with isolated ileal CD compared with patients with colonic involvement
  • [#Candida tropicalis] - patients with CD have much higher abundance of Ca tropicalis compared with their first-degree relatives without CD, - Ca tropicalis induces dysbiosis leading to increased intestinal permeability and induces T helper 1/T helper 17 responses in mice.
  • [#Candida tropicalis] - a marked depletion of Ca tropicalis in those CD patients requiring surgery during disease course.
  • - expansion of #Candida in CD, but only in the active group, suggesting a participation in inflammation.
  • [1.56
    - in CD > significantly elevated abundances for #Streptococcaceae (at baseline) and #Coriobacteriaceae (during active disease) in patients experiencing an exacerbation relative to patients remaining in remission, and the latter effect disappeared after correction for multiple testing.
  • [1.57] [#Inflamatory bowel disease, #Ulcerative Colitis] [#Ruminococcus gnavus
    - In IBD patients, the most distinctive feature between CD and UC was a significantly higher abundance of R. gnavus in CD.
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#Ruminococcus gnavus] - #Pouchitis, a common complication following restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for UC, is associated with increased levels of R. gnavus compared to UC and CD
  • [#Ruminococcus gnavus] - R. gnavus was found to be significantly more abundant in CD patients with a better prognosis, suggesting it may serve as a biomarker for favorable outcomes in CD.
  • [1.58] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - The cumulative risk of IBD showed a gradual increase following a diagnosis of #Migraine and, especially for CD, a steep rise after 5 years of follow-up in migraineurs.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#NSAID] - NSAIDs administered at higher frequency for longer duration have been associated with an increased risk of IBD, especially for CD
  • [1.59
    - IgG2-coating of both known pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria that co-occurred with two non-coated pathobionts, #Campylobacter and #Mannheimia. - The two non-coated pathobionts exhibited low prevalence, rarely coincided and were strongly enriched during disease flares in patients with CD
  • [#Bile Acids, #Deoxycholic acid, #Lithocholic acid] - Individuals with CD had lower plasma concentrations of the majority of secondary BA compared to controls, in total CD/CC ratio 0.60. - The most prominent observations were lower levels of deoxycolic acid derivates and lithocolic acid derivates among participants with CD. - plasma concentration for secondary BA among participants with active CD was significantly lower compared to those with CD in remission, CD active/CD remission ratio 0.65
  • [1.61] [#Clostridioides difficile, #Clostridium paraputrificum] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    - Transferred fecal microbiota from healthy patients and patients with defined Crohn’s ileocolitis (CD_L3) to germ-free mice > a markedly reduced engraftment of CD_L3 microbiome compared to healthy control microbiota. - FMT from CD_L3 patients did not lead to ileitis but resulted in #Colitis with features consistent with CD: a discontinued pattern of #Colitis, more proximal colonic localization, enlarged isolated lymphoid follicles and/or tertiary lymphoid organ neogenesis, and a transcriptomic pattern consistent with epithelial reprograming and promotion of the Paneth cell-like signature in the proximal colon and immune dysregulation characteristic of CD. - The observed inflammatory response associated with persistently increased abundance of #Ruminococcus gnavus, #Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum, #Faecalimonas umbilicate, #Blautia hominis, #Clostridium butyricum, and C. paraputrificum and unexpected growth of toxigenic C. difficile.
  • [1.62
    - #Smoking during #Pregnancy was associated with a high risk of CD in the offspring if mothers continued #Smoking more than 10 cigarettes/day during #Pregnancy.
  • - #Iron supplementation during the first year of life seems to protect against CD.
  • [1.63
    - Specific pathogenic bacteria such as #Filifactor, #Peptoniphilus, and #Sellimonas were identified as characteristic of CD groups. - anti-inflammatory bacteria like #Defluviitalea, #Papillibacter, and Petroclostridium were associated with the control group.
  • [1.64
    - #Barnesiellaceae have been linked to chronic conditions such as #Obesity, cognitive dysfunction, #Depression, cardiovascular disease, and Crohn’s disease
  • [1.65
    - Notably, taxonomic perturbations during dysbiosis mirrored those previously observed cross-sectionally in IBD6, such as the depletion of obligate anaerobes including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis in CD and the enrichment of facultative anaerobes such as E. coli. - depletion of obligate anaerobes including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis in CD and the enrichment of facultative anaerobes such as E. coli. - The reduction in butyrate in particular is consistent with the previously observed depletion of butyrate producers such as F. prausnitzii and R. hominis, which was also observed here.- depletion of obligate anaerobes including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis in CD and the enrichment of facultative anaerobes such as E. coli - The reduction in butyrate in particular is consistent with the previously observed depletion of butyrate producers such as F. prausnitzii and R. hominis, which was also observed here.

References Notes

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Common References

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