Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine
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Short Chain Fatty Acid ⇒ Propionate {60000046}

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Initialisation date:
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Meta Information

Structural Type:
Fatty acid
Functional Type:[  ]
Pro-inflammatory, Performance enhancing


- Propionate induce glycogenolysis and hyperglycaemia by hindering the effects of insulin.
- Propionate may cause gut lumen inflammation.
- Metformin intake may increase Propionate.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Propionate interacts with a type of immune system cell mononuclear phagocytes that are also found in the lining of the gut which cascade sets of inflammation.
  • [1.2
    - Propionate induce glycogenolysis and hyperglycaemia via the upregulation of glucagon and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), thereby hindering the effects of insulin.
  • [1.3
    - High doses of propionate, in young rats, induced a neuroinflammatory response and behavioral alterations.
  • [1.4
    - propionate is restricted to certain microorganisms belonging to the phylum Firmicutes or Akkermansia muciniphilla
  • [1.5
    - The abundance of #Akkermansia muciniphila, as a key player of propionate production, is associated with the richness of the gut microbiota in patients with #Breast cancer]
  • [1.6] [#Galactooligosaccharides & modified mogrosides Sweetener
    - Significant growth during the fermentation at 10 h of bacterial populations includes #Bifidobacterium, #Bacteroides, #Enterococcus, and #Clostridium coccoides. - significant increase in production of SCFA in mMV-GOS at 10 h of fermentation, mainly seen in #Acetate and propionate production
  • [1.7
    - Propionate was shown to stimulate PYY and GLP-1 release thereby reducing energy intake.
  • [1.8] [#Hypertension
    - Propionate treatment in mice > antihypertensive effect.
  • [1.9
    - Increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure.
  • [#Eosinophilic esophagitis] - Propionate > restore the barrier function of esophageal epithelial cells after an inflammatory insult
  • [1.11] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Butyrate or propionate, but not acetate > rapidly converted to the corresponding acyl-CoAs > used by p300 to catalyze auto-acylation of the autoinhibitory loop > activate the acetyltransferase p300 > activating the enzyme for histone/protein acetylation > rapid and sustained increases in histone acetylation.
  • [1.12] [#Obesity
    - Maternal consumption of #Sweeteners > altered cecal microbial composition and metabolism of propionate/#Lactate in their offspring. - Offspring daily body weight gain, liver weight and body fat > correlate positively to the relative abundance of key microbes and enzymes involved in #Succinate/propionate production while negatively correlated to that of #Lactose degradation and #Lactate production. - The altered propionate/#Lactate production in the cecum of weanlings from aspartame and stevia consuming dams implicates an altered ratio of dietary carbohydrate digestion, mainly #Lactose, in the small intestine vs. microbial fermentation in the large intestine.
  • [1.13] [#Propionibacterium freudenreichii
    - P. freudenreichii is able to reduce pyruvate into propionate
  • [1.14
    - children with #Autism, SCFA levels were differentially altered, with an increase in propionate and #Acetate and a decrease in #Butyrate levels. - rats fed with propionate exhibited phenotypic features similar to those of #Autism.
  • [#Hypertension] - Blood pressure > increased #Acetate, #Butyrate, and propionate
  • [1.15] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] [#Long-term daily high-protein yoghurt
    - At day 42, total SCFA were significantly lower in the Skyr group compared to the Control with a trend of lower concentrations of #Acetate and propionate there was no significant difference at day 112. - The proportion of butyrate/total SCFA was significantly higher in Skyr compared to the Control group at day 42
  • [1.16
    - Propionate and #Butyrate regulate gene expression by directly inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs)
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - SCFA levels were observed to be decreased in non-obese #Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. - SCFAs help to inhibit the progress of NAFLD in a variety of ways. - As histone deacetylase inhibitors, propionate, #Acetate, and #Butyrate play an important role in NAFLD by decreasing chromatin-bound acetyl groups
  • [#Steatohepatitis] - #Acetate, propionate, and #Butyrate have been shown to alleviate hepatic steatosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase, expressing a fatty-acid oxidation gene, and inhibiting macrophage proinflammatory activation
  • [1.17] [#Irritable bowel syndrome
    - a recent meta-analysis identified low levels of propionate and #Butyrate in feces from patients with IBS-C, as compared with healthy controls, and a higher proportion of #Butyrate in fecal samples of patients with IBS-D, as compared with controls
  • [1.18] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - In case of antibiotics treatment it decreases the production of SCFA like #Butyrate, propionate and #Acetate which increases inflammation.
  • - Propionate serves as satiety molecule and facilitates production of ATP in liver.
  • [1.19] [#Multiple Sclerosis
    - concentrations of fecal SCFAs (i.e., #Acetate, #Butyrate and propionate) were decreased in RRMS patients, compared to healthy controls
  • [#Gastric bypass surgery] - Higher #Butyrate- and propionate-to-#Acetate ratios after the surgery compared to baseline indicates a shift in microbial metabolism from #Acetate production to #Butyrate and propionate production. - #Butyrate and propionate, which are known to induce satiety in animals and humans, were in greater concentrations in post-RYGB patients compared to nonsurgical controls.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Gastric bypass surgery] - An increase in propionate and #Bile Acids after RYGB was associated with an increase in hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) in humans and, hence, resolution of diabetes.
  • [1.21] [#CVD
    - Patients with CAD had lower concentrations of propionate compared to patients without CAD. - increase of propionate concentration was associated with reduced risk for CAD. - Propionate serum concentrations elicit an immunomodulation with increases of regulatory T cells.
  • - Persons with #Hypertension had lower propionate concentrations
  • [1.22] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] [#Infants
    - a higher percentage of propionate in relation to total SCFA composition was associated with longer uninterrupted human infant #Sleep
  • [1.23] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - The concentrations of these SCFAs in the colon are in the order of #Acetate > propionate > #Butyrate with molar ratios of approximately 60:20:20. - The total luminal SCFA concentrations in humans are 70–140 mmol/kg in the proximal colon, 20–70 mmol/kg in the distal colon, and 10–20 mmol/kg in the terminal ileum. - Approximately 95% of the produced SCFAs are absorbed by colonocytes, and the absorbed SCFAs contribute to 5%–15% of the caloric requirement for humans. - The presence of SCFAs is sensed by intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells by G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), such as GPR41, GPR43, GPR109a, and Olf78. - SCFAs act as type I and II histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, with #Butyrate and propionate having higher HDAC-inhibiting activities compared to #Acetate. - The three major SCFAs promote the proliferation of normal crypt cells in the intestine of healthy individuals. - Triggering GPR43 and GPR41 dynamically regulates the gut barrier, inducing tight junction proteins at steady state but rapidly increasing the permeability during infection, perhaps, to facilitate acute immune responses.
  • [1.24] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - The genus #Blautia was one of the most represented genera in both groups enriched in group T2D. - #Lachnoclostridium were more abundant in the microbiome profiles of diabetic patients. - There are anomalies in the genera #Bacteroides and #Prevotella, both of which are increased in the T2D, both genera are propionate producers.
  • [1.25
    - resistant #Maltodextrin was highly propiogenic
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid, #Butyrate, #Acetate] - #Inulin and #Rice bran promoted the production of all three SCFA
  • [1.26] [#Infants
    Infant > Solid foods: Increased Propionate and #Butyrate
  • Propionate > substrate for gluconeogenesis in intestine and liver
  • [1.27] [#Veillonella atypica] [#Athletes, #Sport
    - increase in #Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon. - #Veillonella utilize #Lactate as their sole carbon source > at higher relative abundance postexercise > convert #Lactate to propionate. - V. atypica improves run time via its metabolic conversion of exercise-induced #Lactate into propionate, thereby identifying a natural, microbiome-encoded enzymatic process that enhances athletic performance. - intrarectal instillation of propionate in mouse is sufficient to reproduce the increased treadmill run time performance observed with V. atypica gavage.

References Notes

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Common References