Disease ⇒ Severe Mental Disorders ⇒ Depression {40000114}

Record Keys


Type:
Disease
Parent:
Definition:
Depression

Details


Initialisation date:
2020-09-06
Other Terms:
Depressive Disorders, major depressive disorder, MDD

Links


Meta Information


MedDra ID:[  ]
MedDra Level:[  ]
ICD:[  ]
Category:
Psychiatry
Zone:[  ]
Mechanism:[  ]

Notes:


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Shared Reference Notes


  • [1.1
    - One previously uncultured bacterium, provisionally named Evtepia gabavorous KLE1738, which required the presence of Bacteroides fragilis KLE1758 for growth. Using bio-assay driven purification of B. fragilis supernatant, Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, was identified as the growth factor of E. gabavorous. In vitro feeding experiments and genomic analysis of E. gabavorous suggests an unusual metabolism focused on consuming GABA. - Using growth of E. gabavorous as an indicator. Reduced levels of GABA are associated with depression, and we found fewer GABA producers in a human cohort of depressed, bipolar, and/or schizophrenic individuals. By modulating the level of GABA, microbial producers and consumers of this neurotransmitter may be influencing host.
  • [1.2
    - GABA is the growth factor produced by Bacteroides fragilis. - An inverse relationship between the relative abundance of fecal Bacteroidesand functional connectivity in a part of the brain associated with elevated activity during depression. This means that low abundance of Bacteroides was associated with high activity in that part of the brain, and vice versa.
  • [1.3
    - There is a decrease in the endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling due to lower peripheral levels of fatty acid precursors of eCB ligands. - The adverse effects of UCMS-transferred microbiota is alleviated by selectively enhancing the central eCB or by complementation with a strain of the Lactobacilli genus.
  • [1.4
    - Chemogenetic activation of striatal microglia induces an aversive affective state - Chemogenetic inhibition of microglia blocks inflammation-induced aversion - Microglial interleukin 6 signaling and prostaglandin synthesis regulate affective state - Prostaglandin E2 from activated microglia reduces the excitability of striatal neurons
  • [1.5
    - It is found that the transfer of the microbiota from models with depression to that of other animals deprived of their microbiota also determined the transfer of the behavioral and physiological characteristics of the depression
  • - Butyrate reduced the depressive behavior, exerting an effect on the CNS in rats
  • [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)] - The administration of a probiotic cocktail, composed of #Lactobacillus rhamnosus and #Lactobacillus helveticus, reduced the symptoms of depression and anxiety
  • [1.6
    - γ-aminobutyric acid (#GABA) production by human-derived #Bacteroides is widespread, and there is a correlation between brain signatures of depression and fecal #Bacteroides levels in patients with #Major depressive disorder
  • [1.7
    - #Combination of probiotics and polyphenol-rich prebiotics, a synbiotic >attenuates the chronic-stress induced inflammatory responses in the ileum and the prefrontal cortex promoting > resilience to the consequent depressive- and #Anxiety-like behaviors in male mice. - This effect may be attributed to specific synbiotic-produced metabolites including #4-hydroxyphenylpropionic, #4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and #Caffeic acid > promoted anti-inflammatory activity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR).
  • [1.8] [#Lactobacillaceae, #Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)
    - Lactobacillus reuteri and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis Probitica > reduction in depressive symptoms at four and eight weeks of treatment, and #Anxiety symptoms at four weeks. > improvement in #Sleep quality. - Lactobacillus reuteri and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis Probitica > decrease in serum interleukin-6 levels. - Lactobacillus reuteri and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis Probitica > increased #Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillacea, whereas it decreased #Enterobacteriaceae in the gut microbiota composition.
  • [1.9
    - #Morganella, was significantly increased in a microbial survey of the 181 people in the study who later developed depression.
  • - depression > glutamate and acetylcholine neurotransmitter levels are higher, while GABA neurotransmitter levels are lower. - regulation of the Kyn/tryptophan pathway may affect the receptors of NMDA in the CNS, might be involved in the progression of depression
  • [1.11] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - patients with depression were two times as likely to develop IBD. - 30% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients develop depression.
  • [1.12] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - reduced levels of SCFAs were observed in patients with #Alzheimer’s disease, and they also promoted depression-like behaviors and impairments of short-term memory in mice
  • - #kynurenine and #Indole derivatives might be associated with neurogenic depression
  • [1.13
    - Oral gavages of #Klebsiella oxytoca, #Escherichia coli, and #Cronobacter sakazakii belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, singly or together, caused dose-dependently #Colitis and depression-like behaviors in germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice.
  • - #Enterococcus faecium and #Pediococcus acidolactici did not significantly cause colitis and depression-like behaviors, they significantly deteriorated Klebsiella oxytoca- or Escherichia coli-induced colitis, neuroinflammation, and anxiety/depression-like behaviors and increased blood LPS, corticosterone, and IL-6 levels.
  • [1.14] [#Lactobacillus plantarum
    - High #Proline consumption was the dietary factor with the strongest impact on depression. - #Proline supplementation in mice exacerbated depression along with microbial translocation. - RNAi-mediated knockdown of #Proline and GABA transporters in Drosophila and mono-association with L. plantarum, a high GABA producer, conferred protection against depression-like states.
  • [1.15] [#Vitamin B12
    - The neurologic complications of B12 deficiency occur at a later stage of depletion and was associated with severe symptoms of depression, suicidal behaviors, reduced cognition, mental #Fatigue, bad or depressed moods, mania, psychosis, and intense agitation
  • [1.16] [#Dark chocolate
    - #Blautia obeum levels were significantly elevated and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii levels were reduced in DC85 compared to CON (P<.05). - Mood states were measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) - the observed changes in negative affect scores were negatively correlated with diversity and relative abundance of #Blautia obeum.
  • [1.17] [#Suicidal ideation
    - rs10437629, previously associated with attempted suicide, was correlated here with SI and the absence of #Alloprevotella rava, a producer of an organic acid known to promote brain energy homeostasis.
  • [1.18
    - Serum IL-6 (age 9) strongly associated with total number of depressive episodes. - CRP DNAm scores weakly associated with total number of psychotic experiences.
  • [1.19] [#5-Hydroxytryptophan
    - Oral administration of 5-HTP significantly restored gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice with depression-like behaviors
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - 65% of individuals with IBD exhibited elevated psychological distress and 21% exhibited symptoms of depression.
  • - Depressed individuals receiving the #Probiotic had ↓ circulating CRP. - #Probiotic treatment, but not prebiotic treatment, decreased depressive symptoms. #Probiotic treatment resulted in ↓ circulating #kynurenine/#Tryptophan ratio, when adjusting for #Isoleucine
  • - Fecal levels of #Isovaleric acid positively correlated with an average of morning and mid-day salivary cortisol measurements. - Depression symptoms positively correlated with fecal levels of #Isovaleric acid
  • [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Condition of chronic stress] - chronic stress was connected with increased depression-like behavior (as measured by the forced swim test), reduced Lactobacillus spp. in the fecal microbiome, as well as increased circulating levels of #kynurenine, a direct metabolite of #Tryptophan via the enzyme IDO1. - supplemented the diet of the mice with L. reuteri ATCC 23272 for an additional 4 weeks, which was sufficient to reverse behavior and #kynurenine concentrations. - The reversal of depression-like behaviors was diminished if #kynurenine levels were artificially elevated during probiotic supplementation, suggesting a link between #kynurenine signaling and depression-like behavior.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Depressed individuals had ↑ circulating IgM and ↑ IgA antibodies against LPS, indicating increased bacterial translocation. - Individuals with depressive and/or anxiety disorders had altered plasma levels of: ↑ LPS, ↑ #Zonulin, and ↑ fatty acid-binding protein 2, as well as an overrepresentation of LPS biosynthesis genes in the fecal microbiome. - Couples with hostile marital interactions had altered circulating: ↑ LPS binding protein (LBP), and ↑ CRP, and individuals with a history of mood disorders had altered circulating levels: ↑ ratio LBP/sCD14 and ↑ CRP
  • [1.21] [#Autism
    - The depletion of #Bifidobacterium species has been reported widely in ASD. - #Bifidobacteria are SCFA producers, and “psychobiotics” , and they modulate the gut–brain signals via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and #Glutamate metabolism. - #Bifidobacterium have been reported to improve behavior and prevent depression-like behaviors in mice.
  • [1.22
    - #Subdoligranulum and #Coprococcus were consistently found to be depleted in individuals with generalized #Anxiety disorder and depression
  • - #Eggerthella has been consistently found to be increased in depression and #Anxiety cases.
  • - #Ruminococcusgauvreauii belongs to the family Ruminococcaceae and at species level was found to be increased in atherosclerotic conditions. - depression is known to be causally associated with #Atherosclerosis.
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - #Ruminococcaceae at genus and family levels have been found to be depleted in cases of both uni- and bipolar depression
  • - #Eubacterium ventriosum > significantly depleted after #Traumatic Brain Injury in mice. - Major depression is a frequent complication of #Traumatic Brain Injury. - Depletion of #Eubacterium ventriosum > increase in depressive symptoms
  • - #Butyrate can affect the gut-brain axis by enhancing the cholinergic neurons via epigenetic mechanisms and can cross the blood brain barrier and activate the vagus nerve and hypothalamus. - Sodium #Butyrate has shown anti-depressant effects in animal models of depression and mani
  • [#Christensenellaceae, #Coprococcus eutactus, #Lachnospiraceae] - RuminococcaceaeUCG005 as the most important genus in predicting depressive symptoms. - #Sellimonas, #Eggerthella, #Lachnoclostridium and #Hungatella were more abundant in individuals with higher depressive symptoms. - 12 genera and 1 microbial family associated with depressive symptoms > genera #Sellimonas, #Eggerthella, #Ruminococcaceae (UCG002, UCG003, UCG005), #Lachnoclostridium, #Hungatella, Coprococcus, LachnospiraceaeUCG001, Ruminococcusgauvreauiigroup, #Eubacterium ventriosum, #Subdoligranulum and family #Ruminococcaceae.
  • [#Omega 3 Supplementation] - #Omega 3 fatty acids, more specifically #Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation are beneficial for depression.
  • - Low levels of #GABA are linked to depression and mood disorders. - gut microbiota can alter #GABA activity in the brain through the vagus nerve.
  • - #Glutamate levels in plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue have been associated with mood and psychotic disorders and suicide.
  • [#Lachnospiraceae] - LachnospiraceaeUCG001, at species level, was found to be associated with anhedonia in mice
  • [1.23] [#Bipolar disorder
    - patients with BD may have an altered histaminergic system, with upregulated #Histamine levels in manic phases and downregulated in depression
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - The increment of serum #Zonulin levels may be related to higher susceptibility for depression induced by stimuli. - #Zonulin and claudin-5 have seen increased in patients with BD.
  • - self-reported depressive symptoms were positively associated with fecal #Acetate concentrations and negatively associated with #Butyrate and #Propionate levels.
  • - #Dopamine, which is higher during mania, increases ROS, and it seems that, during mania and depression, there is a compensatory increase in antioxidant marker levels
  • [1.24] [#Bifidobacterium longum, #Lactobacillus helveticus
    - consum of a mix of psychobiotics (L. helveticus and B. longum) exhibited less #Anxiety and depression than controls.
  • [#Lactobacillus rhamnosus] - in pregnant women, supplementation with L. rhamnosus HN001 lead to significantly less postpartum depression and #Anxiety
  • - Patients with #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Cancer, autoimmune diseases or other chronic inflammatory conditions are predisposed to depression.
  • - Depression > increased blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (Bechter et al., 2010) and through a compromised BBB, cytokines and chemokines infiltrate the CNS, stimulating microglia and astrocyte activation. - This loss of barrier integrity was associated with elevated infiltration of cytokines and subsequent expression of depression-like behaviors
  • - depression has been described as a microglia-associated disorder with many depressed patients suffering from excessive microglial activation
  • [#Irritable bowel syndrome] - patients diagnosed with both IBS and major depression, a twice daily dose of #Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 was administered and treated patients demonstrated reduced depressive phenotypes on multiple scales
  • [#Major depressive disorder] [#Lipopolysaccharide] - elevated GIT permeability with an increased translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of MDD
  • [#Phenolic acids] - #Anthocyanins can also be broken down into protocatechuic acid, further into the bioactive phenolic acid #Cyanidin-3-glucoside and finally into #3-hydroxycinnamic acid, which has potent anti-depressive effects possibly through mechanisms implicating inflammation.
  • [#Gender] - Depression > Female patients have a characteristic increase in the phyla #Actinobacteria, male patients have reduced #Bacteroidetes and both genders display disrupted #Firmicutes homeostasis and elevated #Collinsella spp. abundance
  • - in severe depression > reduced #Bifidobacteriaceae and #Prevotellaceae with elevated #Enterobacteriaceae and #Ruminococcaceae.
  • [#Bifidobacterium animalis lactis, #Bifidobacterium bifidum, #Bifidobacterium longum, #Lactobacillus acidophilus] [#humanized Galactooligosaccharides] [#Combination of probiotics and polyphenol-rich prebiotics] - patients were administered a synbiotic containing L. acidophilus, B. bifidum, B. lactis, and B. longum with the prebiotics FOS, GOS and #Inulin. In a subset of patients with depressive symptoms, the synbiotic significantly reduced the depressive score compared to both the #Probiotic-alone and placebo groups, which correlated to an increase in #BDNF serum levels.
  • - chronic psychological or physical stress induce a battery of depressive phenotypes through mechanisms related to abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis signaling including hypersecretion of #C-reactive protein from the hypothalamus, impaired negative feedback of the HPA axis and hypercortisolemia.
  • - In mice, #Caffeic acid (4 mg/kg) was shown to have antidepressant-like activity independent of monoamine transduction suggesting that #Caffeic acid works through a non-monoameringeric system
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - #Caffeic acid, at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight in mice, prophylactically inhibited LPS-induced sickness behavior specifically by reducing cytokine production in serum and brain thus eliciting a protective effect against neuropathologies associated with depression
  • - #Ferulic acid has been shown to have potent implications in depression.
  • [#Lactobacillus brevis] - #GABA-producing L. brevis FPA 3709 can significantly reduce depressive-like behavior in rats
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - a single injection of LPS is associated with elevated systemic and central inflammatory mediators and significant cognitive deficits
  • [1.25] [#Postmenopausal
    - #Estradiol-degrading #Klebsiella aerogenes from the feces of premenopausal females with depression > In mice, gavaging with this strain led to #Estradiol decline and depression-like behaviors. - The gene encoding the #Estradiol-degrading enzyme in K. aerogenes was identified as 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). - The prevalence of K. aerogene and 3β-HSD was higher in premenopausal women with depression than in those without depression.
  • [#Escherichia coli] - Gavaging mice with 3β-HSD-expressing E. coli decreased their serum #Estradiol levels, causing depression-like behaviors.
  • [#Gender] - #Estradiol decline can result in depressive disorders in females
  • [1.26
    - inoculation of healthy mice with GM from UCMS mice activates the Vagus Nerve and induces early and sustained changes in both #Serotonin and #Dopamine neurotransmission pathways in the brainstem and HPC. - #Vagotomy abrogates adult HPC neurogenesis deficits, neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior, suggesting that vagal afferent pathways are necessary to drive GM-mediated effects on the brain.
  • [1.27
    - higher tissue #Polyamine levels have been reported in various diseases like #Dementia due to #Alzheimer’s disease (AD), #Parkinson’s Disease, #Cancer, and mental disorders like depression.
  • [1.28] [#Infants
    - the relative taxonomic quantitative abundances of #Bifidobacterium dentium and other species that have been associated with either modulation of the gut-brain axis, or other beneficial health outcomes, were reduced in the offspring of mothers with higher #Anxiety, perceived stress, and depression.
  • [1.29] [#Butyric acid, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Administration of SCFAs, such as butyric, acetic, and #Propionic acid, has been reported to improve stress response, #Anxiety, and depression.
  • [#Stroke, #Transient Ischemic Attack] - #Ferulic acid is known to be metabolized by gut microbes. - It exerts neuroprotective effects by reducing neuronal cell death and recovers memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury model. - It has also ameliorated depressionlike behavior and #Oxidative stress.
  • - mucin-degraders (family #Prevotellaceae) were enriched in patients with depression and #Anxiety
  • [1.31] [#Bipolar disorder
    - Abundance of #Bacilli, #Lactobacillales and genus #Veillonella were higher in BD patients than in HCs, while genus #Dorea was more abundant in HCs. - bacterial genera’ abundance in BD patients was strongly correlated with the severity of depression and inflammatory markers.
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - negative association between #Faecalibacterium abundance and depression severity in depressive and BD patients
  • - abundance of #Faecalibacterium, #Pseudomonas and #Fusobacterium was negatively correlated with the severity of depression.
  • [#TNF-alfa] - #Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by #Veillonella could stimulate the release of TNF-α, IL-1, #IL-6 and #IL-10 within Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways
  • [1.32] [#Phenolic acids] [#Grape
    - #malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), a natural anthocyanin present in high proportions in grapes, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, - MG is an anti-pyroptotic phenolic metabolite that targets NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasomes, subsequently reducing caspase-1 and IL-1β protein levels in murine primary cortical microglia and the brain, as its beneficial effect to counteract #Anxiety and depression is also demonstrated.
  • [1.33
  • [#Major depressive disorder] - Microbial signals, pathological neurobiological changes, and depressive emotions can activate the HPA axis, increasing the synthesis and release of cortisol. - As a part of the brain-gut axis, excessive levels of cortisol promote gut pathology by modulating intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses, resulting in a leaky gut
  • [#Major depressive disorder] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - SCFAs were reported to be depleted in patients with MDD,2,32 while their administration resulted in antidepressant effects by ameliorating depression-related intestinal permeability and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, in particular #Butyrate
  • - trimethylamine-N-oxide (#TMAO) from #Choline metabolism can cross the blood–brain barrier to influence brain pathology and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. - A positive association between serum #TMAO levels and depression severity has been reported in individuals.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Preclinical studies have verified that subdiaphragmatic #Vagotomy blocked the development of depression-like behaviors in rodents after LPS injection or #Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) from Chrna7 knock-out mice with depression-like behaviors
  • [#Bile Acids] - BA levels, especially of the secondary BAs modulated by gut microbiota, are negatively correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms,35 suggesting a protective role of higher BA levels for depression. - Turicibacterales, Turicibacteraceae, and #Turicibacter were related to the increased production of BAs. - this taxa has been reported to reduce in depression state.
  • [1.34] [#Major depressive disorder, #Schizophrenia] [#Candida albicans
  • [1.35
    - The increased intestinal permeability in C3GnT−/− mice as compared to C3GnT+/+ mice may facilitate the passage of gut-microbe signals/metabolites to the brain, especially those derived from mucus-associated microbes which are in close proximity to the underlying mucosa. - the caecal content of C3GnT−/− mice exhibited altered levels of metabolites linked with #Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression such as #N-acetyl-lysine derived metabolites, #Acetyl-carnitines, #Dimethylglycine and #Acetyl-L-Tyrosine.
  • [1.36] [#Cognitive impairment, #Hearing loss
    - significant negative correlation between urinary #Glyphosate levels and cognitive function. - severe depressive symptoms were significantly higher than having no symptoms in individuals with higher #Glyphosate levels. - individuals reporting serious hearing difficulty in individuals with higher #Glyphosate levels.
  • [1.37] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Sugar-sweetened beverage
    - high intake of #Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) was more associated with the prevalence of depression. - the risk of depressive symptom significantly increased proportionally to SSCB consumption. - The effects appeared to be the same between those with pre-diabetic risk and those with normal blood #Sugar — which suggests insulin resistance or blood #Sugar levels don’t appear to play a part in determining risk for depression symptoms.
  • [1.38
    - artificial #Sweeteners elicit purinergic transmission in the brain, which may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of depression.
  • [#Ultra-processed food intake] - greater UPF intake, particularly artificial #Sweeteners and artificially sweetened beverages, is associated with increased risk of depression.
  • [1.39
    - #Subdoligranulum, a known #Butyrate producer, has also been negatively associated with depressive symptoms in several studies.
  • - increasing #Serotonin synthesis from intestinal endocrine cells has been linked to depression and #Autism.
  • - Depression and metabolic dysfunction were found to be alleviated in mice after #GABA-producing probiotics were supplemented. - #GABA has immunomodulatory properties and regulates T cell proliferation
  • [1.41
    - #Aspartame-consuming trial participants, with neurological symptomatology increased among individuals with a history of major depression
  • [1.42] [#Exercise training
    - Voluntary exercise-induced antidepressant properties might be partially caused by suppression of #Serotonin uptake into gut microbiota and increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier via reduced #Propionate production.
  • [1.43] [#Bifidobacterium breve, #Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Human breast milk
    - #Probiotic L. reuteri PBS072 and B. breve BB077 > at days 45 and 90, significantly ameliorated the mothers’ mood, the breastfeeding quality and improved the baby’s cries.
  • [1.44
    - depression > depletion of #Coprococcus
  • [1.45] [#Multiple Sclerosis
    - #Tryptamine is a neuromodulator with antioxidant characteristics that is produced when commensal bacteria break down #Tryptophan. - Deficits in #Tryptophan-derived #Neurotransmitters like #Serotonin and #Melatonin, which are both essential for #Sleep, are frequently linked to MS comorbidities, including depression
  • [1.46] [#Ammonia, #GABA
    - ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), a commonly used expectorant in the clinic, can rescue behavioural abnormalities and GABAergic deficits in mouse models of depression
  • - A representative urease-producing strain, #Streptococcus thermophilus, can reverse depression-like behaviours induced by gut microbiota that was altered by stress, whereas pharmacological inhibition of gut #Ammonia production increases stress vulnerability.
  • [1.47
    - subjects whose GM is highly inclined to produce #Indole could be more likely to develop #Anxiety or depressive disorders
  • [1.48] [#Schizophrenia] [#Sugar
    - Dietary sugars, like #Fructose and #Glucose, are associated with psychosis-related higher brain dysfunction
  • - Patients with depression have increased amounts of the neurotransmitter #Acetylcholine, which is produced by glycerophosphocholine.
  • - #Akkermansia was detected in much higher abundance in individuals with severe depressive symptoms. - #Akkermansia might ameliorate chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors.
  • [#Lachnospiraceae] [#D-ribose] - RIB-fed mice were characterized by 22 differential bacteria taxa on the Genera level, especially #Akkermansia, #Turicibacter, and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006
  • - #D-ribose (RIB), could lead to depressive-like behaviors. - RIB level was significantly increased in the depressed patients and depression model rats, and there was an obvious correlation between the change of RIB and the severity of depression disorder.
  • [#D-ribose, #Triglyceride] - altered microbial and metabolic modules involving glycerophospholipid metabolism were highly correlated with depressive-like behaviors in RIB-fed mice
  • - Higher levels of #Glycerophosphoethanolamine have been found in the white matter of depressed individuals
  • - #Phosphatidylcholine (PC), #Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are remarkably increased in depressed patients and have favorable associations with depression severity. - PC and PE might act as a link between gut dysbiosis and depressive-like behaviors.
  • [#Triglyceride] - depressed individuals’ peripheral and central lipid metabolism is disturbed
  • [1.49] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Electro-acupuncture treatment effectively ameliorated both pain and depression-like behaviors. - Electro-acupunctureprofoundly reshaped the gut microbiota composition, notably increasing the abundance of SCFAs-producing bacteria, particularly #Akkermansia. - #Electro-acupuncture treatment > alterations of #BDNF, HDAC2, and AcH3
  • [#Dementia] [#Radiofrequency field] - #N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid (NAAG) is a neuropeptide, which has neuroprotective effects by activating metabotropic #Glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3) and reducing #Glutamate release. - lower NAAG level was associated with cognitive deficits in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and impaired working memory performance in rats. - level of NAAG significantly reduced in fecal metabolites after RF exposure, which may be associated with RF induced depression-like behavior in mice
  • [#Radiofrequency field] - Decreased #Indole and its metabolites (IAM) after RF may result in insufficient #AHR activation, which may also contribute to RF induced depression-like behavior in mice
  • [1.51
    - Species of #Coprococcus, #Akkermansia, #Roseburia, and #Turicibacter were inversely associated with mood symptoms at age 5.
  • [1.52] [#Bifidobacterium longum, #Roseburia intestinalis] [#Homovanillic acid
    - Administering HVA, B. longum, or R. intestinalis to mouse models with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression significantly improved depressive symptoms. - HVA inhibited synaptic autophagic death by preventing excessive degradation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and SQSTM1/p62 proteins, protecting hippocampal neurons’ presynaptic membrane.
  • [1.53] [#Condition of chronic stress
    - stressed animals had a decrease in the abundance of #Lactobacillus after stress and continued with many groups showing that oral administration of a #Lactobacillus #Probiotic can alleviate the #Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in a multitude of models
  • [1.54
    - #TMA is the main agonist interacting with trace amine–associated receptors (TAARs), a family of G-protein–coupled receptors that are further classified into 9 different subfamilies expressed in the human brain and other peripheral organs. - The most highly expressed receptor subtype, namely TAAR5, has been detected in several human brain areas, including the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, hypothalamus and substantia nigra. - TAAR5-knockout mice displayed altered emotional behaviour, particularly anxiety- and depression-like behaviour, as well as impaired brain #Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission.
  • [1.55
    - Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduce stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior.
  • [1.56
    - Researchers identified two bacterial genera #Coprococcus and #Dialister were depleted in patients with depression whether or not they were taking antidepressants.
  • -The ability of microorganisms to produce #DOPAC, a metabolite of the human neurotransmitter dopamine, was associated with better mental quality of life in depressive patient.

References Notes


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Common References


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