Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine
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Disease ⇒ Celiac Disease {40000207}

Record Keys

Parent:[  ]
Celiac Disease


Initialisation date:[  ]
Other Terms:
CD, Coaliac disease


Meta Information

MedDra ID:
MedDra Level:
ICD:[  ]
Gastroenterology, Immunology
Zone:[  ]
Mechanism:[  ]


- Inflammation in celiac disease primarily occurs in the upper small intestine known as the duodenum, and microbial changes that occur in feces may not reflect the changes that occur in the small intestine.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Subspecies of the #Rothia genus have been identified as playing a critical role in the degradation of #Gluten within the mouth and upper gastrointestinal tract. - #Gluten proteins are difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic enzymes and recent studies have highlighted microorganism derived enzymes which aid in breaking down these proteins. - #Rothia spp., contain not only the enzymes necessary for protein degradation but also have enzymes that target the immunogenic epitopes that play a crucial role in celiac disease.
  • [1.2
    - H. pylori has a mild protective role against celiac disease. Although this negative association is not strong.
  • [1.3
    - increase in Actinobacteria species in the upper tract (pharynx and duodenum), and an increase in Proteobacteria in the lower tract (duodenum and stool). - The effect of adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) evidenced by an increase in beneficial bacteria and a decrease in some Betaproteobacteriales but not fully restoring CeD-related dysbiosis. - gut microbiota acts as an enhancer of immune response in CeD through the production of lipopolysaccharides and other bacterial components that activate the immune response and by decrease SCFA producers bacteria.
  • [1.4
  • [1.5
  • [1.6] [#Nonceliac gluten sensitivity] [#Gluten-free diet (GFD)
    - Pre-existing fecal microbiome diversity was unaffected by gluten challenge in adult subjects with CD and NCGS. These findings suggest that current microbiome status is unrelated to current disease activity and disease severity.
  • [1.7] [#Obesity
  • [1.8
    - Microbiota composition and predicted function in Celiac Disease was largely determined by intestinal location. In the duodenum, but not stool, there was higher abundance of #Escherichia coli, #prevotella salivae, and #Neisseria. - #Neisseria, an opportunistic pathogen previously found to be increased in patients with active celiac disease, was associated with more severe enteropathy. - Expression of microbial glutamate carboxypeptidase was lower in the duodenum of celiac patients, and its decrease in mice also correlated with impaired gluten degradation, suggesting a potential candidate for future therapeutic development.
  • [1.9
  • [#Migraine] [#CGRP, #Glutamate, #Serotonin
  • [1.11] [#Clostridium cluster XIVa] [#Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA)
    - 26 plasma metabolites, five cytokines, and one chemokine were significantly altered in CD progressors at age 5. - CD > 2-fold increase in TDCA. - TDCA feeding alone stimulates an inflammatory immune response in the small intestines of C57BJ/6 mice and causes villous atrophy, the hallmark of CD. - TDCA, a microbiota-derived metabolite, enriched in CD progressors’ plasma, has the potential to drive inflammation in the small intestines and enhance CD pathogenesis. - TDCA, is a conjugated bile acid that is mainly produced by gut microbes, particularly Clostridium XIVa and Clostridium XI, with 7-α-dehydroxylation of taurocholic acid and cholic acid. - TDCA was previously shown to be a proinflammatory metabolite. - several Clostridium XIVa ASVs were significantly more abundant in CD samples, especially at age 5. - Clostridium XIVa ASVs were highly targeted by IgA in CD progressors.
  • [1.12] [#Bipolar disorder, #Inflamatory bowel disease, #Irritable bowel syndrome
    - IBS , celiac disease and IBD have been associated with an increment in the risk of developing BD.
  • [1.13] [#Bacteriophage
    - significantly more abundant species in fecal samples of #Children with CeD included Human polyomavirus 2, Enterobacteria phage mEpX1, and Enterobacteria phage mEpX2; whereas less abundant species included #Lactococcus phages ul36 and #Streptococcus phage Abc2.
  • [1.14
    - Bacteroides vulgatus is increased in Infants with the genotype of high risk of celiac disease development. - Increased Bacteroides fragilis increase the risk for celiac disease development in genetically predisposed infants who were formula-fed. - Polysaccharide A produced by Bacteroides fragilis direct the immune system via its ability to direct the development of CD4+ T cells, thus inducing the differentiation of Th1-lineage. - Increased abundance of Bacteroides may contribute to the Th1 response found in the small intestinal mucosa of celiac disease patients.

References Notes

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Common References