Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Serotonin {60000050}

Record Keys

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Initialisation date:

5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)

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Meta Information

Structural Type:[  ]
Functional Type:
Hormon, Neurotransmitter
Anti-inflammatory, Pro-inflammatory


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - #Bifidobacterium infantis > elevate tryptophan levels in blood plasma > influence central serotonin transmission
  • - Candida, Streptococcus, Escherichia, and Enterococcus spp. can produce serotonin
  • [1.2] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease
    - The blood–brain barrier allows the access of #Tryptophan. - In IBD, especially in CD patients, TRP metabolism increases; consequently, the amino acid levels are reduced with respect to normal healthy individuals, and these changes correlate with the gravity of the disease. - TRP undergoes two major metabolic host pathways, the #kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5-HT) biosynthetic pathways, and one microbial pathway to produce #Indole and its derivatives.
  • [1.3
    - Candida albicans, Escherichia, Streptococci, and Enterococci spp. produce serotonin (5-HT)
  • [1.4] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - Serotonin > protective factor of PD
  • [1.5
    - 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonini) > could exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in the gut depending on the respective engagement of 5-HT7 versus 5-HT4 receptors.
  • [1.6] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs > directly affect the sympathetic system > thereby increasing the release of mucosal serotonin and affecting learning and memory functions
  • [1.7] [#Alzheimer’s disease
  • [1.8] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - Gut Dysbiosis > increase hypothalamic microRNA-204 (miR-204), a microRNA > reduce SIRT1 and BDNF > decrease in the sympathetic nerve activity > increase the browning of WAT > #Obesity
  • [1.9] [#Colorectal cancer
    - #Tryptophan > serotonin > can exhibit both a protective and detrimental role. For example, activation of serotonin receptors, 5-HTR1B and 5-HTR2B stimulate tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation. SCFAs can induce the production and release of serotonin though. In normal conditions, serotonin seems to have mainly a protective role but dysregulation of its production is linked to cancer promotion.
  • - 5-HT in the body is synthesized from the essential amino acid #Tryptophan (Trp) in both the brain and gut, and the majority of it (approximately 95% of total 5-HT) resides in the digestive tract and is mostly produced and stored in enterochromaffin cells (ECs). - In the gut, 5-HT is responsible for one of the core signaling pathways, especially in modulating intestinal permeability and regulating mucosal inflammation. - 5-HT is related to colon inflammation in a DSS-induced murine colitis model, and treatment by inhibiting 5-HT production in colonic mucosa has a therapeutic outcome in ameliorating colitis-associated symptoms and inflammation
  • [1.11
    - bacterial SCFA-#Butyrate regulates the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is responsible for initiating peristalsis.
  • [1.12] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs, serotonin, #kynurenine, #Indole and its derivatives, and #Tryptamine, can bridge the gut and nervous system.
  • [1.13
    - lack of gut microbiota causes changes in the expression of serotonin 5-HT1 receptors;
  • [1.14] [#Celiac Disease, #Migraine] [#CGRP, #Glutamate
  • [1.15
    - #Pu-erh tea could boost the #Indole and 5-hydroxytryptamine pathways of the Trp metabolism.
  • - #Tryptamine induces the release of the neurotransmitter 5-HT, a serotonin of enterochromaffin cells. - 5-HT can work on the enteric nervous system to stimulate gastrointestinal motility such as #Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • [1.16
    - A higher relative abundance of #Alistipes species has been reported in children with #Autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) , and depression. - #Alistipes may disrupt the gut–brain axis by decreasing serotonin (indole-positive organism) and impair cognition by producing #Propionic acid in rats.
  • [1.17] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - #Tryptophan, an essential amino acid only derived from microbiome or diet, is the rate limiting precursor to serotonin. #Tryptophan biosynthesis pathway was reduced in PD. - spore forming bacteria modulate serotonin production and enhance gut motility - #Constipation, a common symptom of PD, may be related to the depletion of spore forming bacteria.
  • [1.18
    - #Tryptophan metabolites are produced via four different pathways: The serotonin pathway, the #Tryptamine pathway, the #kynurenine pathway, and the bacterial #Indole pathway.
  • [1.19
    - #Eggerthella is involved in the synthesis of serotonin and gamma aminobutyric acid (#GABA).
  • - serotonin produced by the gut cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, it can affect the blood-brain barrier permeability, which can lead to inflammation of the brain.

References Notes

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Common References