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Shared Reference Notes
- #Bifidobacterium infantis > elevate tryptophan levels in blood plasma > influence central serotonin transmission
- - Candida, Streptococcus, Escherichia, and Enterococcus spp. can produce serotonin
- [1.2] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease]
- The blood–brain barrier allows the access of #Tryptophan. - In IBD, especially in CD patients, TRP metabolism increases; consequently, the amino acid levels are reduced with respect to normal healthy individuals, and these changes correlate with the gravity of the disease. - TRP undergoes two major metabolic host pathways, the #kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5-HT) biosynthetic pathways, and one microbial pathway to produce #Indole and its derivatives.
- Candida albicans, Escherichia, Streptococci, and Enterococci spp. produce serotonin (5-HT)
- [1.4] [#Parkinson’s Disease]
- Serotonin > protective factor of PD
- 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonini) > could exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in the gut depending on the respective engagement of 5-HT7 versus 5-HT4 receptors.
- [1.6] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid]
- SCFAs > directly affect the sympathetic system > thereby increasing the release of mucosal serotonin and affecting learning and memory functions
- [1.7] [#Alzheimer’s disease]
- [1.8] [#Antibiotic Therapy]
- Gut Dysbiosis > increase hypothalamic microRNA-204 (miR-204), a microRNA > reduce SIRT1 and BDNF > decrease in the sympathetic nerve activity > increase the browning of WAT > #Obesity
- [1.9] [#Colorectal cancer]
- #Tryptophan > serotonin > can exhibit both a protective and detrimental role. For example, activation of serotonin receptors, 5-HTR1B and 5-HTR2B stimulate tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation. SCFAs can induce the production and release of serotonin though. In normal conditions, serotonin seems to have mainly a protective role but dysregulation of its production is linked to cancer promotion.
- - 5-HT in the body is synthesized from the essential amino acid #Tryptophan (Trp) in both the brain and gut, and the majority of it (approximately 95% of total 5-HT) resides in the digestive tract and is mostly produced and stored in enterochromaffin cells (ECs). - In the gut, 5-HT is responsible for one of the core signaling pathways, especially in modulating intestinal permeability and regulating mucosal inflammation. - 5-HT is related to colon inflammation in a DSS-induced murine colitis model, and treatment by inhibiting 5-HT production in colonic mucosa has a therapeutic outcome in ameliorating colitis-associated symptoms and inflammation
- bacterial SCFA-#Butyrate regulates the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is responsible for initiating peristalsis.
- [1.12] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid]
- SCFAs, serotonin, #kynurenine, #Indole and its derivatives, and #Tryptamine, can bridge the gut and nervous system.
- lack of gut microbiota causes changes in the expression of serotonin 5-HT1 receptors;
- [1.14] [#Celiac Disease, #Migraine] [#CGRP, #Glutamate]
- #Pu-erh tea could boost the #Indole and 5-hydroxytryptamine pathways of the Trp metabolism.
- - #Tryptamine induces the release of the neurotransmitter 5-HT, a serotonin of enterochromaffin cells. - 5-HT can work on the enteric nervous system to stimulate gastrointestinal motility such as #Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- A higher relative abundance of #Alistipes species has been reported in children with #Autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) , and depression. - #Alistipes may disrupt the gut–brain axis by decreasing serotonin (indole-positive organism) and impair cognition by producing #Propionic acid in rats.
- [1.17] [#Parkinson’s Disease]
- #Tryptophan, an essential amino acid only derived from microbiome or diet, is the rate limiting precursor to serotonin. #Tryptophan biosynthesis pathway was reduced in PD. - spore forming bacteria modulate serotonin production and enhance gut motility - #Constipation, a common symptom of PD, may be related to the depletion of spore forming bacteria.
- #Tryptophan metabolites are produced via four different pathways: The serotonin pathway, the #Tryptamine pathway, the #kynurenine pathway, and the bacterial #Indole pathway.
- #Eggerthella is involved in the synthesis of serotonin and gamma aminobutyric acid (#GABA).
- - serotonin produced by the gut cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, it can affect the blood-brain barrier permeability, which can lead to inflammation of the brain.
- [#Bipolar disorder, #Major depressive disorder, #Schizophrenia] [#Quinolinic acid, #kynurenine] - shift in the #Tryptophan metabolism from serotonin to the kyn pathway is associated with BD, MDD and SZ, but only in mood disorders (BD and MDD) there was a preferential metabolism of Kyn to the potentially neurotoxic QA.
- [#Bipolar disorder] - in BD > Especially, #GABA, #Glutamate, serotonin, #Dopamine, norepinephrine and #Acetylcholine appears to be importantly dysregulated in these patients
- - serotonin can affect both vagus nerve and BBB permeability, and it modulates intestinal inflammation.
- - #Tryptophan can cross the BBB, serotonin produced in the gut cannot.
- 95 % of all serotonin synthesis occurs in the GIT, which influences its availability in the brain.
- [1.22] [#Anorexia nervosa, #Bulimia nervosa] [#Bacteroides uniformis]
- Individuals with AN lacking the genomic region of B. uniformis had greater scores for self-denial and bulimia. - The genetic deletion in B. uniformis could result in the deficiency of thiamine, a vitamin associated with intestinal and mental health. - The serotonin synthesis module causally affected BMI through #Glycoursodeoxycholic acid, which is upregulated by serotonin.
- [#Anorexia nervosa] - The abundance of GBMs for serotonin synthesis and degradation of #Tryptophan, #Glutamate, and #Dopamine, were enriched in AN.
- [1.23] [#α-tocopherol]
- microbial metabolites such as α-tocopherol, #Tyramine, #p-aminobenzoate, and #Indole impact serotonin 5-HT secretion by enteroendocrine cells in the intestine.
- [1.24] [#Depression]
- inoculation of healthy mice with GM from UCMS mice activates the Vagus Nerve and induces early and sustained changes in both serotonin and #Dopamine neurotransmission pathways in the brainstem and HPC. - #Vagotomy abrogates adult HPC neurogenesis deficits, neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior, suggesting that vagal afferent pathways are necessary to drive GM-mediated effects on the brain.
- #Tyramine, #Deoxycholic acid, and #4-aminobenzoic acid have been reported to stimulate serotonin synthesis
- - norepinephrine, indole, #Indole-3-aldehyde, #Isovaleric acid, #Butyric acid, and #Isobutyric acid stimulate serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells.
- [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - gut microbiota may promote the development of functional #Constipation through microbial metabolites, including #Bile Acids, SCFAs, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and #Methane.
- #Tryptophan is mostly shunted into the #kynurenine pathway but is also the primary metabolite for serotonin production and the bacterial #Indole pathway.
- [#Tryptophan] - Digestion of Trp results in the well-known neuroactive compounds, serotonin and #Melatonin, and is a starting point for the NAD+ -producing #kynurenine pathway in human
- Serotonin levels could predict an increased risk for osteoporotic fractures, gut-derived serotonin reduces osteoblast proliferation and inhibits bone formation leading to a decrease in BMD and a higher risk of #Osteoporosis
- [1.28] [#Autism]
- FMT in the ASD cohort could decrease #GABA and serotonin in serum, but the #Dopamine level was increased by FMT.
- [#Autism] - FMT could exhibit a recovery effect on the serum levels of serotonin, #GABA, and DA in the ASD cohort, which means that FMT might be an effective technique in regulating #Neurotransmitters via the MGB axis
- [#Blood Brain Barrier Integrity] - #Tryptophan can cross the BBB and affect serotonin synthesis in CNS
- - #Streptococcus and #Enterococcus produce serotonin
- - #Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis, #Lactobacillus plantarum, #Streptococcus thermophilus, #Escherichia coli, #Morganella morganii, #Klebsiella pneumoniae, and #Hafnia alvei produce serotonin
- - #Escherichia produces #Norepinephrine, serotonin, and #Dopamine
- [1.29] [#Acetylcholine, #Noradrenalin] [#Keto diet]
- concentrations of 5-HT, NE, AC, and cAMP of SHR in the KD group were strikingly higher than that in the ND group.
- [#Alzheimer’s disease] - #Tryptophan depletion increases cognitive deficits among people with AD and the bioavailability of metabolites in the serotonin and #kynurenine pathways are altered in both the urine and serum of AD patients
- increasing serotonin synthesis from intestinal endocrine cells has been linked to #Depression and #Autism.
- - There is currently no evidence that bacterial serotonin production contributes to the pathogenesis of #Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- - #Tryptamine stimulates the release of serotonin from intestinal endocrine cells.
- [1.32] [#Depression] [#Exercise training]
- Voluntary exercise-induced antidepressant properties might be partially caused by suppression of serotonin uptake into gut microbiota and increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier via reduced #Propionate production.