Shared Reference Notes
- More than 140,000 viral species (bacteriophage) living in the human gut, most of which had never been identified before. - One third of gut bacteriophages infect several different bacteria rather than a single bacterial species
- - #Firmicutes harbor a significantly higher viral diversity than the other types of bacteria.
- [1.2] [#Escherichia coli]
- [1.4] [#Schizophrenia]
- Lactobacillus phiadh infects #Lactobacillus gasseri. - At least 1 match for Lactobacillus phage phiadh was found in 17 of 41 of PWS, as compared to 1 of 33 of controls. - The study also found that the level of Lactobacillus phiadh > correlated with an increased rate of comorbid immunological disorders in PWS. - The phage Lactobacillus phiadh modulates the level of its host bacterium, #Lactobacillus gasseri, which affects the host’s immune system.
- [1.5] [#Inflamatory bowel disease]
- #Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) strains are associated with IBD severity across geography. - A Kp-targeting five-phage combination suppresses intestinal inflammation in IBD models
- [1.6] [#Colorectal cancer, #Crohn’s disease] [#Western-style diet]
- the abundance of a class of crAss-like phages, a group of related viruses that includes some of the most abundant viruses of the human gut, were higher in populations with non-westernized dietary habits - several types of crAss-like phages were present at decreased levels in people with #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Systemic lupus erythematosus, #Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn disease, and at increased levels in people with colon cancer.
- [1.7] [#Cutaneous T cell lymphomas] [#Staphylococcus aureus]
- #Endolysin strongly inhibits proliferation of S. aureus isolated from CTCL skin and significantly decreases S. aureus bacterial cell counts in a dose-dependent manner. - #Endolysin inhibits the patient-derived S. aureus induction of Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and IFNγ-inducible chemokine CXCL10 in healthy skin. - #Endolysin strongly inhibits the effects of S. aureus on activation (reduced CD25 and STAT5 phosphorylation) and proliferation (reduced Ki67) of malignant T cells and cell lines in the presence of non-malignant T cells.
- [1.8] [#Natural Small intestine Microbiome]
- eukaryotic viral families present in the SI include #Anelloviridae, Papillomaviridae, Picornaviridae, and #Virgaviridae, and bacteriophage families include #Caudovirales, #Siphoviridae, #Myoviridae, and #Podoviridae.
- [1.9] [#Cognitive impairment, #Mild Cognitive Impairment]
- higher abundance of #Lactobacillus phages (family #Siphoviridae of the order #Caudovirales positively associated with better cognitive function; and transplantation of these phages from humans to mice and Drosophila showed increased memory scores and upregulation of memory-involved brain genes.
- [#Mild Cognitive Impairment] [#Aging] - overall abundance of viruses increased in the gut of older adults with MCI compared with controls. - abundance of Podovirideae, Inovirideae, Myovirideae, and Siphovirideae, which belong to bacteriophage types of viral families
- [#Mild Cognitive Impairment] [#Aging] - older adults with MCI had higher abundance of Lactococcus phage ul36 which specifically regulates the #Probiotic bacteria like #Lactococcus lactis (a common yogurt culture)
- [#Celiac Disease] - significantly more abundant species in fecal samples of #Children with CeD included Human polyomavirus 2, Enterobacteria phage mEpX1, and Enterobacteria phage mEpX2; whereas less abundant species included #Lactococcus phages ul36 and #Streptococcus phage Abc2.
- [1.11] [#Metabolic associated fatty liver disease] [#Alcohol Consumption]
- high alcohol-producing #Klebsiella pneumoniae (HiAlc Kpn) in the intestinal microbiome could be one of the causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). - treatment with HiAlc Kpn-specific phage was able to alleviate steatohepatitis caused by HiAlc Kpn, including hepatic dysfunction and expression of cytokines and lipogenic genes.
- [1.13] [#Colorectal cancer] [#Fusobacterium nucleatum]
- phages targeting F. nucleatum, combined with irinotecan were able to reduce tumor growth, while selectively inhibiting CRC-associated bacterium F. nucleatum in vivo