Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Probiotic {50000140}

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- Probiotics provide two different immunomodulatory effects:
- immunostimulatory effect > activates Interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, induces natural killer (NK) cells, T helper cells (Th) - Th1 and Th2 cells, and acts against infection and allergy.
- immunoregulatory effect > induces Interleukin (IL-10) and T regulatory (Treg) cell activation by Th2, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, and monocytes for adaptive immunity of the host
- Probiotics also show significant microbial killing properties through alveolar macrophage, neutrophils, natural killer cells.

References Notes

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.4
    - Probiotic > Covid-19 > The proportion who developed symptoms was 26.4% with LGG versus 42.9% with placebo, a significant difference.
  • [1.5
    - Prob+BBR superior to BBR or Prob alone in improving postprandial total cholesterol (pTC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pLDLc) levels with decrement of multiple species of postprandial lipidomic metabolites after 3 months follow-up.
    - This effect was linked to the changes of fecal Bifidobacterium breve level responding to BBR alone or Prob+BBR treatment.
    - Four fadD genes encoding long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase > identified in the genome of this B. breve strain, and transcriptionally activated by BBR.
    - The activation of fadD by BBR could enhance FFA import and mobilization in B. breve and diliminish the intraluminal lipids for absorption to mediate the effect of Prob+BBR on PL.
  • [1.7
    - Probiotic supplements do not induce clinically significant reductions in HbA1c levels, but lead to marginally clinically significant reductions in fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    - Compared with single-strain and low-dose probiotics, multi-strain and high-dose probiotics have a greater beneficial effect on glycemic homeostasis.

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