- Probiotics provide two different immunomodulatory effects:
- immunostimulatory effect > activates Interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, induces natural killer (NK) cells, T helper cells (Th) - Th1 and Th2 cells, and acts against infection and allergy.
- immunoregulatory effect > induces Interleukin (IL-10) and T regulatory (Treg) cell activation by Th2, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, and monocytes for adaptive immunity of the host
- Probiotics also show significant microbial killing properties through alveolar macrophage, neutrophils, natural killer cells.
Shared Reference Notes
- [1.1] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Bifidobacterium breve]
- [1.2] [#Lactobacillus rhamnosus] [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)]
- Probiotic > #Covid-19 > The proportion who developed symptoms was 26.4% with LGG versus 42.9% with placebo, a significant difference.
- [1.3] [#CVD, #Dyslipidemia, #Postprandial lipidemia, #Diabetes Type 2] [#Berberine]
- Prob+BBR superior to BBR or Prob alone in improving postprandial total cholesterol (pTC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pLDLc) levels with decrement of multiple species of postprandial lipidomic metabolites after 3 months follow-up. - This effect was linked to the changes of fecal #Bifidobacterium breve level responding to BBR alone or Prob+BBR treatment. - Four fadD genes encoding long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase > identified in the genome of this B. breve strain, and transcriptionally activated by BBR. - The activation of fadD by BBR could enhance FFA import and mobilization in B. breve and diliminish the intraluminal lipids for absorption to mediate the effect of Prob+BBR on PL.
- [1.4] [#Bifidobacterium longum, #Pediococcus pentosaceus]
- [1.5] [#Diabetes Type 2]
- Probiotic supplements do not induce clinically significant reductions in HbA1c levels, but lead to marginally clinically significant reductions in fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. - Compared with single-strain and low-dose probiotics, multi-strain and high-dose probiotics have a greater beneficial effect on glycemic homeostasis.
- [1.6] [#Pancreatic Cancer] [#Lactobacillus] [#Indole, #Tryptophan]
- [1.7] [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)]
- [1.8] [#Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation]
- IH-FMT mice exhibited increased aBP and TMAO levels, and impairments in aortic and coronary artery function that were abrogated by probiotic administration.
- [#Depression] - Depressed individuals receiving the probiotic had ↓ circulating CRP. - Probiotic treatment, but not prebiotic treatment, decreased depressive symptoms. Probiotic treatment resulted in ↓ circulating #kynurenine/#Tryptophan ratio, when adjusting for #Isoleucine
- [1.11] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Saccharomyces boulardii] [#Amyloid-beta, #Lipopolysaccharide]
- S. boulardii significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as hippocampal levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the LPS model. - S. boulardii alleviated amyloid-β deposition in the rat hippocampus. - S. boulardii could inhibit memory impairment, neuroinflammation, and amyloid-β accumulation induced by LPS, possibly by modifying the gut microbiota.
- [1.12] [#CVD] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)]
- Short-chain fatty acids and secondary #Bile Acids can decrease #Cholesterol levels by regulating #Cholesterol metabolism. - Microbial #Bile Salt hydrolases can increase #Cholesterol disposal rates by accelerating its conversion to #Bile Acids. - Probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are efficient reducers of #Cholesterol levels in clinical studies. - Several candidate next-generation probiotics, including #Akkermansia muciniphila, #Bacteroides spp., #Clostridium spp., #Christensenella minuta, Eubacterium spp., and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, have been shown to decrease #Cholesterol levels in human or animal studies.
- widespread class of #Bacillus lipopeptides, the fengycins, eliminates S. aureus by inhibiting S. aureus quorum sensing—a process through which bacteria respond to their population density by altering gene regulation. - consumption of probiotic #Bacillus bacteria comprehensively abolished colonization by the dangerous pathogen #Staphylococcus aureus in a rural Thai population.
- [1.14] [#Alzheimer’s disease]
- Probiotic combined with #Selenium supplementation in AD patients resulted in synergistic improvements in MMSE score, reductions in CRP, reductions in total antioxidant capacity, lower insulin levels, lower LDL levels, and lower serum triglycerides.
- [1.15] [#humanized Galactooligosaccharides]
- probiotic #Bifidobacterium breve, plus the prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) > increased facial skin hydration (corneometer) and improved overall facial skin appearance (Visual Analog Scale) > lower urinary levels of phenol and p-cresol, presumably due to a beneficial effect of the study drink on gut flora.
- [#Natural Skin Microbiome] - probiotic #Lactobacillus johnsonii plus carotenoids reduced signs of UV-induced skin damage triggered by simulated or natural sun exposure.
- [#Natural Skin Microbiome] - probiotic #Lactobacillus plantarum > transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was much less in the probiotic group at Week 12. Wrinkle depth significantly decreased in the probiotic group by Week 12, along with significant improvement in skin gloss. - skin elasticity, improved 13.17% in the probiotic group after 4 weeks, and 21.73% after 12 weeks > facial skin anti-aging.
- [1.16] [#Lactobacillus acetotolerans]
- [1.17] [#Metabolic syndrome]
- [1.18] [#Allergic asthma] [#Acinetobacter lwoffii]
- Repeated intranasal AL administration triggered a proinflammatory immune response particularly characterized by elevated levels of IL-6, and consequently, IL-6 induced IL-10 production in CD4+ T-cells. - Both IL-6 and IL-10, but not IL-17, were required for #Asthma protection.
- [1.19] [#Depression] [#Bifidobacterium animalis lactis, #Bifidobacterium bifidum, #Bifidobacterium longum, #Lactobacillus acidophilus] [#humanized Galactooligosaccharides] [#Combination of probiotics and polyphenol-rich prebiotics]
- patients were administered a synbiotic containing L. acidophilus, B. bifidum, B. lactis, and B. longum with the prebiotics FOS, GOS and #Inulin. In a subset of patients with depressive symptoms, the synbiotic significantly reduced the depressive score compared to both the probiotic-alone and placebo groups, which correlated to an increase in #BDNF serum levels.
- [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Indole-3-aldehyde (I3A) (IAID)] - probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (Lr) translocates to, colonizes, and persists within #Melanoma, where via its released dietary #Tryptophan catabolite I3A, it locally promotes interferon-γ-producing CD8 T cells, thereby bolstering ICI (immune checkpoint inhibitor ).
- [1.21] [#Mild Cognitive Impairment] [#Aging, #Bacteriophage]
- older adults with MCI had higher abundance of Lactococcus phage ul36 which specifically regulates the probiotic bacteria like #Lactococcus lactis (a common yogurt culture)
- [1.22] [#Olive]
- #Lactobacillus, also elevated with EVOO consumption25,29 when administered in probiotic form, promoted a significant reduction in plasma total #Cholesterol levels in mice as well as human patients with hypercholesterolemia.
- Probiotic supplementation enhances both muscle mass and global #Muscle strength; however, no beneficial effects were observed in total lean mass.
- [1.24] [#Osteoporosis] [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri]
- L. reuteri > Could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. - Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. - L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss.