Neurotransmitters ⇒ GABA {60000051}

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Meta Information

Structural Type:
Amino acid
Functional Type:
Function:[  ]


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - #Bifidobacterium can produce GABA
  • - #Lactobacillus can produce GABA
  • [1.2
    - γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by human-derived #Bacteroides is widespread, and there is a correlation between brain signatures of #Depression and fecal #Bacteroides levels in patients with #Major depressive disorder
  • - γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by human-derived #Bacteroides is widespread, and there is a correlation between brain signatures of depression and fecal #Bacteroides levels in patients with #Major depressive disorder.
  • [1.3
    - #Bifidobacterium generate GABA.
  • [#Vaginally delivery] - Gamma aminobutyrate (GABA), a major CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter, is produced from #Lactobacillus and is the first bacterium that is colonized with most vaginally born infants.
  • [1.4] [#Drug-resistant Epilepsy] [#Keto diet
    - ketogenic diet has been shown to increase the level of GABA in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with refractory epilepsy
  • - GABA producers > Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus
  • [#Irritable bowel syndrome] - In IBS patients, the GABAergic system is disrupted, and the levels of glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2), GABA, and GABA receptors(including type B1 and B2) are decreased, while GABA transporter-2 (GAT-2) is increased in IBS-D patients
  • - Fecal transplantation from #Schizophrenia patients to GF mice resulted in elevated levels of glutamine and GABA in the hippocampus, and led to #Schizophrenia-related behaviors
  • [1.5
    - Elevated levels of #Glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and reduced #Glutamate were observed in the hippocampus of germ-free mice that received fecal transplants from schizophrenic mice and showed #Schizophrenia-like behaviors.
  • [1.6] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - In the PD metagenome, we noted a decrease in #Glutamate/glutamine synthesis gene-families and pathways, and a concomitant increase in both #Glutamate and GABA degradation.
  • [1.7
    - Low levels of GABA are linked to #Depression and mood disorders. - gut microbiota can alter GABA activity in the brain through the vagus nerve.
  • - #Eggerthella is involved in the synthesis of #Serotonin and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA).
  • [1.8] [#Bipolar disorder
    - in BD > Especially, GABA, #Glutamate, #Serotonin, #Dopamine, norepinephrine and #Acetylcholine appears to be importantly dysregulated in these patients
  • - GABA is biosynthesized from #Glutamate due to the action of the enzyme #Glutamate decarboxylase, which is found in eukaryotic cells and in a broad spectrum of bacterial species. - LAB and more specifically certain #Lactobacilli strains are the most important GABA producers in the gut.
  • [1.9
    - #Bifidobacteria and #Lactobacillus spp. can produce micromolar concentrations of GABA.
  • [#Depression] [#Lactobacillus brevis] - GABA-producing L. brevis FPA 3709 can significantly reduce depressive-like behavior in rats
  • - Certain microorganisms, including #Bifidobacterium, #Escherichia spp., #Bacteroides, and #Parabacteroides, produce GABA, which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • [1.11] [#Mediterranean Ketogen Diet
    - dietary interventions such as the MMKD may decrease GABA levels in the opposite direction through its associated increases in GABA-regulating microbes such as #Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • - strains that are similar to #Alistipes sp. CAG:514 are known to produce GABA.
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease, #Cognitive impairment, #Mild Cognitive Impairment] [#Mediterranean Ketogen Diet] - Participants with MCI on the MMKD had lower levels of GABA-producing microbes #Alistipes sp. CAG:514 and GABA, and higher levels of GABA-regulating microbes #Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • [#American Heart Association Diet] - the low-fat AHAD modulates key #Neurotransmitters, such as promoting GABA production, in individuals with #Cognitive impairment. This dysregulation may be related to increases in GABA-producing microbes, such as #Alistipes sp. CAG:514.
  • [#American Heart Association Diet, #Mediterranean Ketogen Diet] - GABA levels were higher in the stool of cognitively impaired individuals on the AHAD compared with those on the MMKD
  • [1.12] [#Human milk oligosaccharides] [#Adult
    - #Indole-3-lactic acid and #3-phenyllactic acid (linked to immune health) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (linked to gut-brain axis) were most profoundly stimulated by 2′FL and HMO blends in both #Children and adults, correlating with specific #Bifidobacteriaceae.
  • [1.13] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Olive
    - #Lactobacilli and #Bifidobacterium are often greatly reduced in patients with AD. - Both of these bacterial types, populations of which are elevated with EVOO consumption, can produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, likely influencing GABAergic firing in the brain via the enteric and vagal nervous systems.
  • [1.14
    - The presence of #Pipecolic acid in the CNS can be partially derived from the gut microbiota and has been also associated with GABA signaling and release.
  • [1.15
    - animal models of #Schizophrenia had reduced systemic #Dopamine and lower enteric GABA
  • - GABA levels were lower in the auditory cortices of adults presenting with unilateral #Tinnitus
  • [1.16] [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    - #Lactobacillus and #Bifidobacterium producers of GABA, which is known to decrease in patients with ADHD > Ameliorate ADHD
  • [#Autism] - FMT in the ASD cohort could decrease GABA and #Serotonin in serum, but the #Dopamine level was increased by FMT.
  • [#Autism] - FMT could exhibit a recovery effect on the serum levels of #Serotonin, GABA, and DA in the ASD cohort, which means that FMT might be an effective technique in regulating #Neurotransmitters via the MGB axis
  • [#Autism] - rodent ASD model > induced by oral #Propionic acid ingestion. - Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium infantis could ameliorate glutamate excitotoxicity, a major autistic feature in this model. The therapeutic effect of these psychobiotics might be due to the reduction of oxidative stress, restoration of the depleted GABA signaling pathway, and upregulation of the GABA receptor’s gene expression
  • - #Bifidobacterium species produce GABA
  • - #Lactobacillus species produce #Acetylcholine and GABA
  • [1.17] [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    - #Bifidobacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the primary repressive neurotransmitter in the human cerebral cortex. - GABA levels in #Children with ADHD is reportedly low and negatively correlated with impulsive behavior
  • [1.18
    - #Bifidobacterium and #Lactobacillus spp. can convert #Arginine to #Glutamic acid, which is deaminated to aminobutyric acid (GABA), a key inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS
  • - #Depression and metabolic dysfunction were found to be alleviated in mice after GABA-producing probiotics were supplemented. - GABA has immunomodulatory properties and regulates T cell proliferation
  • [1.19
    - #Bullous pemphigoid > reduced #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and greater abundance of pathways related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in BP patients.
  • - GABA plays multiple roles in maintaining skin health, including the inhibition of itching by acting as a neurotransmitter, attenuating skin lesions by balancing Th1 and Th2 levels, and maintaining skin elasticity by increasing the expression of type I #Collagen.
  • - gut #Ammonia links microbe nitrogen metabolism to host stress vulnerability by maintaining brain #Glutamine availability in male mice. - abnormally low blood #Ammonia levels limit the brain’s availability of #Glutamine, a key metabolite produced by astrocytes that is required for presynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) replenishment and confers stress vulnerability through cortical GABAergic dysfunction.
  • [#Ammonia] - ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), a commonly used expectorant in the clinic, can rescue behavioural abnormalities and GABAergic deficits in mouse models of #Depression
  • [1.21
    - The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis posits a role of GABA deficiency in the central nervous system in the pathogenesis and progression of #Essential tremor. - gut microbiota of patients with ET had a lower GABA-producing capacity. - degeneration of the GABAergic neurons in the cerebellum and a reduction in the concentrations of GABA in the cerebrospinal fluid were observed in patients with ET
  • [#Essential tremor] [#Lactobacillus plantarum] - administering the high-GABA-producing L. plantarum strain L5 significantly ameliorated the tremors in ET mice by reshaping the gut microbial composition, enhancing the GABA-producing capacity of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and elevating the GABA concentrations in the cerebellum. - supplementation of L5 did not lead to any conspicuous increase in the plasma concentrations of GABA in mice. - GABA synthesized by the intestinal L5 was conveyed to the brain via the “enteric nervous system–vagus nerve–brain” axis and subsequently relieved the tremor. - the administration of L5 significantly elevated the relative abundance of several probiotics (e.g., Lactobacillus and Akkermansia), improved the small intestinal barrier, and attenuated neuroinflammation in ET mice.
  • [1.22] [#Bacteroides ovatus, #Bacteroides uniformis, #Bacteroides vulgatus] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - the size of the left nucleus accumbens were dominated by Bacteroides species, especially B. vulgatus, B. uniformis, and B. ovatus. B. ovatus has been shown to produce a number of neuroactive compounds including SCFAs and #Neurotransmitters such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
  • [1.23] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - alterations in the #Glutamate-#Glutamine-GABA cycle and increased SCFAs have been observed in patients with #Schizophrenia.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - genera #Lactobacillus and #Megasphaera are increased in #Schizophrenia (SZ), as well as alterations in the #Glutamate-#Glutamine-GABA cycle, serum levels of #Tryptophan, #kynurenic acid (KYNA), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

References Notes

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Common References

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