Shared Reference Notes
- The infant’s gut microbiota of healthy breastfed infants is normally dominated by infant-type bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. - C. difficile colonizes 10–70% of infants below 1 year of age7. C. difficile infections during infancy may not only cause diarrhoea but are also associated with higher risk of allergic diseases during early life8.
- There is a clear association between decreased normalised abundance of #Prevotella in faecal samples collected at 12 months of age and increased behavioural problems at 2 years.
- [1.3] [#Non-industrialized envirounment]
- Non-industrialized countries > increased #Prevotella copri, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Prevotella stercorea in infants.
- [1.4] [#Antibiotic Therapy, #Infants treated with antibiotic]
- Infants treated with antibiotics tend to have lower bacterial diversity as well as an increase of #Enterobacteriaceae and #Enterococcus
- [1.5] [#Human milk nutrient fortifiers]
- babies fed HMBFs derived from their own mother’s milk had higher levels of #Veillonella in their stools, which has been shown to help protect infants from developing #Asthma.
- #Air Pollution > infant gut microbiota at 6 months of age > PM10 exposure was positively associated with Dialister, Dorea, Acinetobacter, and Campylobacter while PM2.5 was positively associated with Actinomyces. - exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 was inversely associated with Alistipes and NO2 exposure was positively associated with Actinomyces, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Eubacterium.
- [1.7] [#Bacteroides cellulosilyticus] [#Human milk oligosaccharides] [#Human Milk]
- The relative abundance of maternal B. cellulosilyticus, a versatile carbohydrate degrader, was positively associated with the overall abundance of microbial glycoside hydrolases in the infant gut, particularly those involved in HMO degradation. - Moreover, this maternal species was inversely correlated with intact HMOs in infant fecal samples and positively associated with HMO-utilizing infant species that are unable to degrade these oligosaccharides, such as #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum.
- [#Bacteroides cellulosilyticus] [#Mother-infant] - For gene-sharing events detected in infants at the first sampling time point (0.5 months), B. cellulosilyticus was the main maternal donor species, consistent with its pronounced influence on infant gut microbiome structure.
- [#Bifidobacterium longum] - B. longum abundance was inversely correlated with #Inosine, a purine metabolite with immunoregulatory properties
- [#Mother-infant] - Maternal gut strains transmitted after the first 3 months of life included members of the genera #Eubacterium, #Roseburia, and #Blautia.
- - There was an infant-specific inverse association of #Collinsella aerofaciens and fecal #Arginine, possibly mediated by #Arginine deiminase. - #Arginine is an essential amino acid for premature and low-birth weight infants and modulates immune system development, partially as a substrate for polyamine and nitric oxide biosynthesis.
- [#Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii] [#Human Milk] - positive association of infant intestinal inflammatory mediators, such as #Eicosanoids, with previously identified members of the breast milk microbiome and with C. kroppenstedtii, a species isolated almost exclusively from clinical mastitis samples and uniquely present in stool from breastfed infants in our analysis.
- [#Escherichia coli] - Unique infant microbe-metabolite associations included positive correlations of #Enterococcus faecalis and E. coli with neurotransmitters #Tyramine and #Agmatine, respectively
- [#Mother-infant] - Metabolites enriched in infants included carnitines, eicosanoids, glycerophosphocholines, and very long-chain fatty acids, whereas secondary bile acids, B vitamins, and medium-chain fatty acids were more abundant in mothers
- [#Infants treated with antibiotic] - #Klebsiella michiganensis (present in 125 infant versus 3 maternal samples), which lacks the pathogenic potential of other Klebsiella species and may contribute to colonization resistance during antibiotic perturbation. - K. michiganensis was more prevalent in samples from infants who previously received systemic antibiotics.
- [1.8] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid]
- a higher percentage of #Propionate in relation to total SCFA composition was associated with longer uninterrupted human infant #Sleep
- [1.9] [#Obesity] [#Human Milk]
- HM #Butyrate concentrations were overall negatively associated with infant weight and adiposity, and associations were stronger at younger infant ages. - HM #Butyrate concentration was also inversely correlated with HM intake volume, supporting a possible mechanism whereby #Butyrate might reduce infant growth via appetite regulation and modulation of HM intake.
- [#Atopic Dermatitis] - in infants > #Staphylococcus epidermidis was found protective against AD as well as in older populations
- [#Natural Skin Microbiome] - Infant skin > 21 bacterial phyla with #Proteobacteria, #Firmicutes, #Actinobacteria, and #Bacteroidetes being the most abundant. - the relative abundance of #Burkholderiaceae and #Staphylococcus, highly abundant after birth, decreased progressively, to the benefit of newly colonizing taxa such as #Streptococcus, #Veillonella, and #Enhydrobacter aerosaccus
- [#Natural Skin Microbiome] - Infant Skin > #Lactobacillus iners were most abundant at day 1 after birth and dropped afterward.
- [#Natural Skin Microbiome] [#Human Milk] - Infant Skin > Breastfeeding > at 3 and 6 months, respectively > lower abundances and frequencies of members of the #Prevotellaceae family at both timepoints