Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Mediterranean diet {51111163}

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Mediterranean diet
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    -Taxa enriched by adherence to the Meddiet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. - The Meddiet-modulated microbiome changeis associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • [1.2
    - Reductions in branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), such as valerate, isovalerate, isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate in the faeces. - Increased levels of the fibre-degrading Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and of genes for microbial carbohydrate degradation linked to butyrate metabolism. - The dietary changes in the MedD group led to increased urinary urolithins, faecal bile acid degradation and insulin sensitivity that co-varied with specific microbial taxa. - Higher abundance of different taxa that were positively linked to markers of lower frailty and better cognitive function and negatively associated with inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. - Increased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia. - Lower abundance of the potentially proinflammatory Ruminococcus gnavus and R. torques - Increased urinary levels of urolithin glucuronides produced by urolithin-producing gut bacteria. - R. gnavus is a proinflammatory species due to secretion of a polysaccharide that induces tumour necrosis factor alpha in dendritic cells.
  • [1.3
    - Later age of onset correlated most strongly with MIND diet adherence in the females - Greek Mediterranean adherence is associated with later PD onset
  • [1.4] [#Metabolic syndrome
    - The protective association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiometabolic disease risk is significantly stronger among participants with decreased abundance of #Prevotella copri.
  • [1.5
    - Mediterranean-style diet is highly encouraged because of its healthy dietary pattern, which includes antioxidant nutraceuticals such as polyphenols. Indeed, hydroxycinnamic derivatives, quercetin, resveratrol, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, which are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, exert anti-#Obesity proprieties.
  • [1.6
    - #Prevotella are more common in non-Westernized populations consuming a plant-rich diet or in Western populations with high adherence to a Mediterranean or vegetarian diet
  • [1.7
    As compared to a Western diet, the Mediterranean diet was associated with - higher number of anal gas evacuations, - sensation of flatulence and borborygmi, - larger volume of gas after the meal and - larger colonic content. Despite the relatively little difference in microbiota composition between both diets, - microbial metabolism differed substantially, as shown by urinary metabolite profiles and the abundance of microbial metabolic pathways. - The effects of the diet were less evident in individuals with robust microbiotas (higher beta-diversity). - healthy individuals tolerate dietary changes with minor microbial modifications at the composition level but with remarkable variation in microbial metabolism
  • [1.8] [#Green-Mediterranean diet
    - The Green-MED diet was associated with specific microbial changes, including enrichments in the genus Prevotella and enzymatic functions involved in branched-chain amino acid degradation, and reductions in the genus Bifidobacterium and enzymatic functions responsible for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis.
  • [1.9
    - Mediterranean diet decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations and enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia abundances. - These taxa were positively associated with improved cognitive function and negatively associated with inflammatory markers and frailty. - long-term adherence to a Mediterranean diet was positively associated with F. prausnitzii, Eubacterium eligens, and Bacteroides cellulosilyticus
  • [#Amyloid-beta] - higher Mediterranean diet adherence led to higher grey matter volume, better memory, lower Aβ, and lower phosphorylated tau

References Notes

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