Short Chain Fatty Acid ⇒ Propionic acid {60000095}

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Propionic acid
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    PD patient group, the abundance of proinflammatory microbes, such as #Clostridiales bacterium NK3B98 and #Ruminococcus sp AM07-15, significantly correlated with decreased fecal levels and increased plasma levels of SCFAs, especially propionic acid.
  • [1.2] [#Multiple Sclerosis
    - Propionic acid, but not butyrate and acetate, was significantly reduced in blood and stool in MS patients with all disease subtypes, particular after relapse. - Supplementation of propionic acid promoted Treg cell function, and in long-term administration reduced relapse rate, disability and brain atrophy.
  • [1.3
    - A higher relative abundance of #Alistipes species has been reported in children with #Autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) , and depression. - #Alistipes may disrupt the gut–brain axis by decreasing #Serotonin (indole-positive organism) and impair cognition by producing propionic acid in rats.
  • [1.4] [#Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), #Pregnancy] [#Branched-chain amino acids, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    In GDM: - Isobutyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids were significantly higher in the GDM. - #Isobutyric acid significantly correlated with urea and blood glucose at 1 and 2 hours after OGTT; fasting blood glucose, blood glucose at 2 hours after OGTT. - urea/creatinine ratio positively correlated with #Valeric acid. - blood glucose at 2 hours after OGTT positively correlated with #Caproic acid. - white blood cell count positively correlated with propionic acid. - Significantly elevated #Isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in pregnant women with GDM may be associated with insulin resistance caused by BCFAs.
  • [#Preeclamsia, #Pregnancy] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] in PE: - #Acetic acid, propionic acid, #Isobutyric acid, and valeric acids levels were significantly higher in the PE group. - the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, urea/creatinine ratio, and total BA of pregnant women significantly positively correlated with #Acetic acid, propionic acid, #Isobutyric acid, and #Valeric acid. - urea positively correlated with #Acetic acid and #Isobutyric acid. - white blood cell count and gestational age negatively correlated with #Acetic acid, propionic acid, #Isobutyric acid, and #Valeric acid. - total cholesterol negatively correlated with propionic acid and #Isobutyric acid. - the percentage of neutrophils and fetal birth weight negatively correlated with #Isobutyric acid and #Valeric acid. - #Acetic acid and propionic acid have high diagnostic value for PE.
  • [1.5] [#Propionibacterium acnes
  • [1.6] [#Cutibacterium acnes] [#Ultraviolet Exposure
  • [1.7] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Grape seed
    - the production of bioactive #Phenolic acids derived from the anthocyanin-rich GSPE is dependent on the microbiota, and two of the microbiota-derived metabolites 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3′-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid accumulate in micromolar concentrations in the brain where they can interfere with the assembly of #Amyloid-beta peptides.
  • [1.8] [#Multiple Sclerosis
    - MS patients exhibited reduced serum and fecal concentrations of propionic acid. - administration of propionic acid in MS patients showed increased functionality of competent regulatory T cells and reduced brain atrophy
  • [1.9] [#Irritable bowel syndrome] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - the concentration difference in two SCFAs, propionic minus #Butyric acid, has been shown to be positive for all four IBS subtypes but negative in healthy subjects
  • [#Staphylococcus aureus] - #Cutibacterium acnes secretes a lipase that converts triacylglycerols contained in sebum to propionic acid, which contributes to the acidification of the skin surface; a factor that limits the growth of S. aureus
  • [1.11] [#Butyric acid, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Administration of SCFAs, such as butyric, acetic, and propionic acid, has been reported to improve stress response, #Anxiety, and #Depression.
  • [#Blood Brain Barrier Integrity] - Propionic acid > promote BBB integrity by mitigating oxidative and proinflammatory pathways.
  • [1.12] [#Aromatic amino acid
    - #Peptostreptococcus anaerobius is the main producer of aromatic propionic acids in #Infants’ gut
  • [1.13] [#Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    - the enrichment #Lactobacillus sp. in non-PMO and the increased abundances of #Peptoniphilus sp., propionic acid bacteria, and members of the #Galicola genus in PMO
  • [1.14] [#Chronic liver disease
    - Propionic acid, is transported through the portal vein to the liver, where it can inhibit liver damage and gluconeogenesis
  • [1.15] [#Clostridium botulinum, #Clostridium caloritolerans, #Clostridium paraputrifcum] [#Indole-3-propionic acid, #Tryptophan
    - Some gut microbiomes, C. botulinum, C. caloritolerans and C. paraputrifcum converts Trp to #Indole -3-propionic acid (IPA). - Its major contribution is in preserving β-cell function and improving #Glucose metabolism.
  • [1.16
    - #Butyric acid and propionic acid, two short-chain fatty acids that were found to be altered during #Covid-19 phase, also fell within normal levels in post-#Covid-19 patients, probably indicating that the leaky gut phenomenon and gut dysbiosis detected during COVID infection could be partially reestablished
  • [1.17] [#Christensenellaceae, #Prevotellaceae] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Berberine > the relative abundances of #Parabacteroides, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, and Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group increased, the relative abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group decreased, and cecal SCFA levels (#Acetic acid and propionic acid) were reduced.
  • [1.18] [#Autism
    - rodent ASD model > induced by oral propionic acid ingestion. - Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium infantis could ameliorate glutamate excitotoxicity, a major autistic feature in this model. The therapeutic effect of these psychobiotics might be due to the reduction of oxidative stress, restoration of the depleted #GABA signaling pathway, and upregulation of the #GABA receptor’s gene expression
  • [1.19] [#Lipopolysaccharide, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs, especially propionic acid, and #Butyric acid, can inhibit the expressions of cytokines #IL-6 and #IL-12 induced by LPS in human mature dendritic cells.
  • - #Cutibacterium acnes induced a large increase in essential lipids including triglycerides, #Ceramides, #Cholesterol, and free fatty acids. - C. acnes can mediate this effect through its production of propionic acid and subsequent activation of keratinocyte PPARα. - This increase in lipids was mediated by short-chain fatty acids produced by #Cutibacterium acnes and was dependent on increased expression of several lipid synthesis genes including glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-3. - Inhibition or RNA silencing of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor–α (PPARα), but not PPARβ and PPARγ, blocked this response.
  • [#Cutibacterium acnes] - lipid extracted from neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) after exposure to C. acnes CM or propionic acid has increased antimicrobial potency against C. acnes. - Many lipids potentially made by NHEK have antimicrobial activity including #Lauric acid, #Palmitoleic acid isomer (C16:1Δ6), sphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine
  • [#Cutibacterium acnes] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - C. acnes produces high amounts of propionic acid and other SCFAs, which creates a lipid-rich environment that is favorable for the growth and proliferation of the bacteria.
  • [#Cutibacterium acnes] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Production of SCFA including propionic acid promotes an acidic environment that influences the survival of skin microbiota, formation of biofilms, as well as the function of pH-dependent enzymes required for lipid synthesis
  • [#UV radiation, #Ultraviolet Exposure] - Propionic acid reduced UVB (Ultraviolet B)-induced functioning melanocyte levels by inhibiting tyrosinase activity in vitro and in vivo
  • [#Staphylococcus aureus] - application of propionic acid on mice led to a significant decrease in the size of skin lesions infected with S. aureus USA300 and have direct antimicrobial activity against this pathogen.
  • [1.21] [#Tuberculosis] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - TB infection reduced the SCFA production in feces which included significantly low levels of #Butyric acid, #Isobutyric acid, #Valeric acid, and #2-metylbutic acid. However, the levels of propionic acid and #Acetic acid were non-significantly reduced and elevated, respectively, in the TB group compared with HC.
  • [1.22] [#Acetic acid
    - GPR43 interaction with acetic or propionic acid upregulates the transcription factor Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) to control the anti-inflammatory effect of Treg cells
  • [#Butyric acid] - By inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the colon and immune cells, butyric and propionic acids can promote histone acetylation
  • [#Indole-3-lactic acid, #Indole-3-propionic acid] - #Clostridium sporogenes, for example, converts #Tryptophan into #Tryptamine, indoleacetic acid (ILA), and #Indole propionic acid (IPA)
  • [1.23
    - #Ginseng treatment group exhibited the most remarkable regulatory effect on propionic acid
  • [1.24] [#Valeric acid
    - The lower abundance of #Bifidobacterium is the key feature of the microbiota composition associated with severe #Autism. ASD patients presented significantly higher levels of propionic and valeric acids than General Population at 4–7 years, but these differences disappeared at 8–10 years. - #Bifidobacterium being reduced in children with severe ASD.
  • [#Autism] [#Caproic acid, #Isobutyric acid, #Isovaleric acid, #Short Chain Fatty Acid, #Valeric acid] - higher levels of propionic and valeric acids as well as the sum of minor SCFA (isobutyric + isovaleric + valeric + caproic acids) were found in ASD at the age 4–7 years, but these differences disappeared at the age of 8–10 year
  • [#Autism] [#Eubacterium coprostanoligenes] - in contrast to ASD Patient > #Oscillospiraceae , #Christensenellaceae, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes_group, Oscillospirales__UCG-010and #Selenomonadaceae, generally enriched in SIB and GP groups were negatively correlated with propionic acid.
  • [1.25] [#Blood Brain Barrier Integrity
    - propionic acid binds to GPR41 in brain endothelial cells, hinders low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1(LRP-1) expression through a CD14-dependent mechanism, and shields the blood-brain barrier from #Oxidative stress via NRF2 signaling

References Notes

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Common References

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