Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Phenolic acids {90000434}

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Phenolic acids
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Grape seed
    - the production of bioactive phenolic acids derived from the anthocyanin-rich GSPE is dependent on the microbiota, and two of the microbiota-derived metabolites 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3′-hydroxyphenyl) #Propionic acid accumulate in micromolar concentrations in the brain where they can interfere with the assembly of #Amyloid-beta peptides.
  • [#Catechins] - #Grape seed #Polyphenol extract (GSPE) is a rich source of flavan-3-ols including catechin, epicatechin, and #Anthocyanins which were shown to produce a variety of bioavailable phenolic acids both in the plasma and brain.
  • [#Depression] - #Anthocyanins can also be broken down into protocatechuic acid, further into the bioactive phenolic acid #Cyanidin-3-glucoside and finally into #3-hydroxycinnamic acid, which has potent anti-depressive effects possibly through mechanisms implicating inflammation.
  • [#Lactobacillus plantarum, #Streptococcus thermophilus] [#Cypto-chlorogenic acid] - mulberry #Anthocyanins were specifically transformed by S. thermophilus (46.2%) and L. plantarum (43.6%) into #Chlorogenic acid, cypto-#Chlorogenic acid, #Caffeic acid and #Ferulic acid: all phenolic acids with potent anti-inflammatory benefits.
  • [#Lactobacillus plantarum] [#Catechins, #Polymeric procyanidins] - L. plantarum IFPL935 was found to be important in the first step of catechin and procyanidin catabolism involving ring fission, however did not impact the production of phenolic metabolites unless in the context of a complete microbiota indicating that there is another microbe using the metabolic intermediate of L. plantarum to produce the bioactive metabolites.
  • - Phenolic acids produced by the gut microbiota also modulate microglial activation.
  • [#Polyphenol] - There are three major catabolic mechanisms elicited by the gut microbiota to produce bioactive phenolic acids frpm polyphenols: hydrolysis (O-deglycosylations and ester hydrolysis), cleavage (C-ring cleavage, delactonization, demethylation) and reduction (dehydroxylation and double bond reduction)
  • [1.2] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Amyloid-beta] [#Olive
    - oral administration of EVOO and specific EVOO phenolic compounds, in particular, can reduce the accumulation of β-#Amyloid (Aβ) deposits and tau neuropathologies in mouse models of AD, resulting in improved memory and cognition.
  • - #Olive oil phenolic compounds demonstrate #Cholesterol binding activity and can impair #Cholesterol absorption in the intestine, as well as reduce oxidation of LDL via their antioxidant effects
  • [#Phenol] - There are > 100 different phenolic compounds in #Olive-derived products; the main phenolics are found in EVOO, including the simple phenols, #Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the secoiridoids, oleuropein, oleocanthal, and ligstroside, all of which possess potent antioxidant activity and prolong the shelf life of EVOO.
  • - Approximately 90%–95% of ingested phenolic compounds escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon, where they are catabolized into bioactive secondary structures
  • [#Olive] - phenolic compounds in the EVOO, including tyrosol, vanillin, vanillic, and cinnamic acids, also exhibited slight antimicrobial activity.

References Notes

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