Nitric Oxide {60000038}

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Nitric Oxide
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Natural Skin Microbiome
    - #Nitrosomonas eutropha, a non-pathogenic bacterium, oxidize ammonia in sweat to nitrite and nitric oxide, which have anti-inflammatory effects > reduced the number of pathogenic bacteria on the skin and improved skin healing. - after 7 days of twice-daily facial high-dose mist use > improved Wrinkle depth and severity and Forehead and glabellar pigmentation.
  • [1.2] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - #Anthocyanins inhibit LPS-induced microglial activation in BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB translocation into the nucleus and consequently cytokine release including nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 release
  • [#Epigallocatechin gallate, #Lipopolysaccharide] - Similar to EGCG, #Resveratrol was shown in neuron-glial primary cultures to inhibit LPS-induced microglial activation and subsequent production of TNFα, nitric oxide and IL-1β likely through modulation of inflammasome signaling
  • - Apigenin and diosmetin, both #Grape-derived #Polyphenols, potently and dose-dependently inhibited AGE-induced nitric oxide and TNFα release
  • [1.3] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - Circulating LPS activate Toll-like receptors, which are pathogen scavengers, and increase inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a biomarker of stress; both TLR and iNOS increase inflammation and energy expenditure.
  • [1.4
    - NO is a multifunctional signaling molecule and neurotransmitter that regulates cell survival, differentiation and proliferation of neurons as well as synaptic activity, plasticity and vesicle trafficking.
  • - mice were treated with S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine for ten consecutive days. This increased NO production, resulting in a significant reduction in the cortical dendritic spine density in the mice, similar to what is seen in the genetically altered ASD mice.
  • [1.5] [#Magnesium
    - Mg deficiency increased the production of a neuroinflammatory tachykinin which stimulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide
  • [1.6] [#Male Infertility
    - intestinal capillary endothelial cells express iNOS, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. - Under the stimulation of endotoxin, pathogenic microorganisms can induce the binding of specific bacterial species or NF-κB to the promoter region of iNOS, thereby upregulating transcription of iNOS28. - The abnormal increases in iNOS can disrupt the integrity of tight junctions within the blood-testis barrier, impair sperm-egg binding during fertilization, induce apoptosis in germ cells, and adversely affect sperm count. - elevated levels of NO inhibit sperm mitochondrial respiration, leading to mitochondrial hyperpolarization, the release of cytochrome C, and ultimately, the death of sperm cells. - the presence of endotoxin can significantly reduce Bin1b expression and its affinity for sperm, thereby impairing sperm maturation and motility
  • [1.7
    - Dietary #Nitrate is absorbed in the intestines and excreted back into the gastrointestinal tract by the salivary glands at high concentrations, forming the so-called entero-salivary circulation of #Nitrate. - Denitrifying oral bacteria are important for converting #Nitrate (NO3−) into nitrite (NO2−), which can be further converted into nitric oxide (NO) in the acidic pH of the stomach. - The generation of NO contributes to gastric protection by increasing blood flow and mucus thickness. - The #Nitrate and nitrite that are not converted to NO in the stomach are absorbed into the bloodstream and tissues, where they might act as reservoir for NO, which appears to be important for vasodilation under hypoxia and modulation of mitochondrial respiration.
  • [1.8
    - mice exposed to chronic #Noise showed increased inflammatory markers in their blood [inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor κB and interleukin (IL)-6] and alterations to microbiome functionality that are indicative of greater #Oxidative stress
  • [1.9] [#Reactive Oxygen Species
    - #Propionibacteriaceae are Gram-positive, anaerobic rods associated with human infections, including corneal infections, and are often found in #Acne vulgaris patients. - Intradermal infections of #Propionibacteriaceae generate ROS and nitric oxide and induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since an imbalance of these ROS and antioxidative tear proteins favors the development of tear film instability
  • [#Atherosclerosis] [#Tannerella forsythia] - T. forsythia is orally inoculated in ApoEnull mice, it results in increased serum #Amyloid A, decreased serum nitric oxide, and elevated serum lipoproteins > increase in total plasma cholesterol levels.
  • [1.11
    - the vascular benefits of #Homoarginine are at least partially attributable to increased nitric oxide production, a potent vasodilator. #Homoarginine is a substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which catalyzes the conversion of l-#Arginine to nitric oxide. - #Homoarginine may inhibit #Arginine catabolism by arginase therefore increasing l-#Arginine availability for nitric oxide production
  • [#Walnut] - nitrates in walnuts were metabolized by gut microbiota including #Gordonibacter to produce nitric oxide.
  • [1.12
    - #Arginine metabolism mainly produces urea and #Ornithine via the arginase pathway and nitric oxide (NO) and #Citrulline via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway
  • [#Irritable bowel syndrome] - In the digestive system, NO serves as the primary inhibitory nonadrenergic and noncholinergic neurotransmitter. - NO released from nerve stimulation in the myenteric plexus causes smooth muscle relaxation and plays a critical role in regulating esophageal, gastric, and intestinal peristalsis. - NO may play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS,

References Notes

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Common References

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