Human milk oligosaccharides {60000075}

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Human milk oligosaccharides
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- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are complex carbohydrates abundant in breast milk. Intriguingly, these molecules do not provide energy to the infant. Instead, these oligosaccharides are key to guide and support the assembly of a healthy gut microbiome in the infant, dominated by beneficial gut microbes such as Bifidobacterium. New analytical methods for glycan analysis, and next-generation sequencing of microbial communities, have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the positive role of breast milk oligosaccharides on the gut microbiome, and the genomics and molecular strategies of Bifidobacterium to utilize these oligosaccharides. (1)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Human breast milk
    - Low gut bacterial diversity in breastfeeding infants is thought to be a result of breastmilk oligosaccharides which serve as substrates for a limited number of gut microbes
  • [1.2] [#Irritable bowel syndrome
    - Patients had a significant improvement from baseline to 12 weeks in total percentage of bowel movements. - Improvement was similar across IBS subtypes. Symptoms improved most in the first 4 weeks of intervention. - The most common side effects were mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal pain and discomfort, and distension.
  • [1.3] [#Human breast milk
    - Breast milk contains important developmental and immune-promoting factors such as oligosaccharides, immunoglobulins (IgA), and #Lactoferrin which protect the newborn passively and actively against excessive intestinal inflammation
  • [1.4] [#Bifidobacterium longum] [#Human breast milk
    - breast fed babies #Bifidobacterium spp. is typically high, than in formula fed babies because #Bifidobacterium longum utilizes fucosylated oligosaccharides which is present in mother’s milk.
  • [1.5] [#Bacteroides cellulosilyticus] [#Human breast milk, #Infants
    - The relative abundance of maternal B. cellulosilyticus, a versatile carbohydrate degrader, was positively associated with the overall abundance of microbial glycoside hydrolases in the infant gut, particularly those involved in HMO degradation. - Moreover, this maternal species was inversely correlated with intact HMOs in infant fecal samples and positively associated with HMO-utilizing infant species that are unable to degrade these oligosaccharides, such as #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum.
  • [1.6
    - HMOs > LNnT stimulated #Butyrate (linked to #Anaerobutyricum hallii in adults).
  • [#Adult] - Among the HMOs, 6′SL specifically stimulated #Propionate (linked to #Bacteroides fragilis in #Children and #Phocaeicola massiliensis in adults)
  • [#Bifidobacteria, #Bifidobacterium adolescentis, #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum] [#Fructooligosaccharides, #Inulin] - 2′FL/LNnT were bifidogenic for both age groups, 3′SL/6′SL and FOS/IN were exclusively bifidogenic for children and adults, respectively. - 3′SL/6′SL stimulated B. pseudocatenulatum (abundant in children), FOS/IN enhanced B. adolescentis (abundant in adults). - increased #Acetate, #Propionate and #Butyrate (only in adults) with product- and age-dependent differences.
  • [#GABA] [#Adult] - #Indole-3-lactic acid and #3-phenyllactic acid (linked to immune health) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (linked to gut-brain axis) were most profoundly stimulated by 2′FL and HMO blends in both #Children and adults, correlating with specific #Bifidobacteriaceae.
  • [#Adult] - 2′FL/LNnT increased #Melatonin in #Children, while 3′SL remarkably increased #Folic acid in adults.
  • [#Human breast milk] - HMOs include 2’Fucosyllactose (2’FL), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3’Sialyllactose (3’SL) and 6’Sialyllactose (6’SL)
  • [1.7
    - A low relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and depletion of HMO utilization genes in the gut microbiome of human #Infants was also recently shown to be associated with systemic inflammation and polarization of naive CD4+ T cells towards TH17 cells, which could be reversed upon supplementation with #Bifidobacterium infantis
  • [#Human breast milk, #Infants] - human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) facilitate the expansion of #Bifidobacterium species, which have an instrumental role in the development of T cell-dependent IgA responses and have been linked to higher numbers of memory B cells during infancy
  • [1.8
    - pathogens are not able to bind to the epithelium in the presence of OSCs
  • [1.9] [#Bifidobacterium infantis] [#Para-cresol
    - Antibitic resulted dysbiosis > Application of synbiotic #Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis), and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) > - increases in #Lactate-consuming #Veillonella, faster #Acetate recovery, and changes in #Indolelactate and p-cresol #Sulfate, metabolites that impact host inflammatory status. - #Veillonella co-cultured in vitro and in vivo with B. infantis and HMO converts #Lactate produced by B. infantis to #Propionate, an important mediator of host physiology.
  • [#Infants] - Intake of infant formula containing synthetic hMOS has been shown to increase #Bifidobacterium abundance and that of its metabolites, especially #Acetate, in infant feces, and to reduce lower respiratory tract infections during the first year of life.
  • [#Respiratory syncytial virus] - HMOS reduce the viral load and the inflammatory signaling in cultured RSV-infected respiratory human cells.

References Notes

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