Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Human milk oligosaccharides {60000075}

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Human milk oligosaccharides
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- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are complex carbohydrates abundant in breast milk. Intriguingly, these molecules do not provide energy to the infant. Instead, these oligosaccharides are key to guide and support the assembly of a healthy gut microbiome in the infant, dominated by beneficial gut microbes such as Bifidobacterium. New analytical methods for glycan analysis, and next-generation sequencing of microbial communities, have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the positive role of breast milk oligosaccharides on the gut microbiome, and the genomics and molecular strategies of Bifidobacterium to utilize these oligosaccharides. (1)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Human Milk
    - Low gut bacterial diversity in breastfeeding infants is thought to be a result of breastmilk oligosaccharides which serve as substrates for a limited number of gut microbes
  • [1.2] [#Irritable bowel syndrome
    - Patients had a significant improvement from baseline to 12 weeks in total percentage of bowel movements. - Improvement was similar across IBS subtypes. Symptoms improved most in the first 4 weeks of intervention. - The most common side effects were mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal pain and discomfort, and distension.
  • [1.3] [#Human Milk
    - Breast milk contains important developmental and immune-promoting factors such as oligosaccharides, immunoglobulins (IgA), and #Lactoferrin which protect the newborn passively and actively against excessive intestinal inflammation
  • [1.4] [#Bifidobacterium longum] [#Human Milk
    - breast fed babies #Bifidobacterium spp. is typically high, than in formula fed babies because #Bifidobacterium longum utilizes fucosylated oligosaccharides which is present in mother’s milk.
  • [1.5] [#Bacteroides cellulosilyticus] [#Human Milk, #Infants
    - The relative abundance of maternal B. cellulosilyticus, a versatile carbohydrate degrader, was positively associated with the overall abundance of microbial glycoside hydrolases in the infant gut, particularly those involved in HMO degradation. - Moreover, this maternal species was inversely correlated with intact HMOs in infant fecal samples and positively associated with HMO-utilizing infant species that are unable to degrade these oligosaccharides, such as #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum.
  • [1.6

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