Neurotransmitters ⇒ Dopamine {60000054}

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DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - #Bacillus can produce dopamine.
  • [1.2
    - #Bacillus spp. produces Dopamin
  • [1.3] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyrDC), present in gut microbes, converts #L-Dopa into dopamine, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in the gut, causing many side effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and nausea. - levodopa can be metabolized by Clostridium sporogenes to 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (#DHPPA), a metabolite that inhibits muscle contraction in the ileum, reduces intestinal movement, and impairs absorption in the small intestine.
  • [1.4] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - #Vitamin B6 is a critical cofactor for a wide range of biochemical reactions, including the synthesis of dopamine. - #Vitamin B6 intake was associated with a reduced risk of developing PD.
  • [1.5] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - elevated levels of #Tyrosine decarboxylase/aspartate 1-decarboxylase gene-family, which removes #Tyrosine, a required precursor of dopamine.
  • [1.6] [#Bipolar disorder
    - in BD > Especially, #GABA, #Glutamate, #Serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and #Acetylcholine appears to be importantly dysregulated in these patients
  • - dopamine, which is higher during mania, increases ROS, and it seems that, during mania and #Depression, there is a compensatory increase in antioxidant marker levels
  • [1.7] [#Bacillus subtilis
    - several microbiota species produce dopamine including #Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and #Staphylococcus aureus
  • [1.8] [#Anorexia nervosa
    - The abundance of GBMs for #Serotonin synthesis and degradation of #Tryptophan, #Glutamate, and dopamine, were enriched in AN.
  • [1.9] [#Depression
    - inoculation of healthy mice with GM from UCMS mice activates the Vagus Nerve and induces early and sustained changes in both #Serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission pathways in the brainstem and HPC. - #Vagotomy abrogates adult HPC neurogenesis deficits, neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior, suggesting that vagal afferent pathways are necessary to drive GM-mediated effects on the brain.
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - #Butyrate can protect against MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD) neurotoxicity by preventing dopaminergic neuronal loss and dopamine depletion, reducing gliosis proliferation in SN and up-regulating neurotrophic factors.
  • [1.11] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#L-Dopa
  • [1.12
    - animal models of #Schizophrenia had reduced systemic dopamine and lower enteric #GABA
  • [1.13] [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    - #Bifidobacterium was increased in patients with ADHD, which was linked with the enzyme involved in the dopamine precursor (#Phenylalanine) synthesis
  • [#Autism] - FMT in the ASD cohort could decrease #GABA and #Serotonin in serum, but the dopamine level was increased by FMT.
  • - #Bacillus species produce #Norepinephrine and dopamine
  • - #Escherichia produces #Norepinephrine, #Serotonin, and dopamine
  • [1.14] [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    - #Bifidobacterium also participates in the DA neural reward system, suggesting that #Bifidobacterium is a potential biomarker for ADHD
  • [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] [#Keto diet] - KD could relieve behavioral symptoms of ADHD in SHR, increase neurotransmitter expression, and increase protein expression of DA-related genes (DRD1, DAT, PKA, DARPP32, and cAMP).
  • [1.15] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs were recently reported to have protective properties against dopamine and #Tyrosine hydroxylase depletion in the substantia nigra
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - #Helicobacter pylori, was found to be associated with increased severity of motor dysfunction, decreased dopamine levels in the brain, and decreased levodopa absorption as well as autoimmune and inflammatory reactions
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Alpha-synuclein] - oral administration of #Proteus mirabilis, increased markedly in PD mouse models, was sufficient to provoke selective death of dopamine neurons and motor deficits in mice, accompanied by neuroinflammation and accumulation of aggregates of α-synuclein in both the colon and brain
  • [1.16
    - microbial production of #Fatty acid amides (FAAs) enhanced sensory neuron activity through the endocannabinoid receptor CB1. - This increase in neuronal activity, in turn, boosted striatal dopamine signaling during exercise
  • - The microbiome appeared to fundamentally influence the impact of exercise on the brain. - Intense #Physical activity stimulates numerous neurochemical responses in the brain, including a surge in dopamine release in the striatum > in the absence of the microbiome, this surge was severely diminished. - dopamine deficiency was indeed the cause for reduced exercise in microbiome-depleted animals. - restoring dopamine signaling fully restored their running ability
  • [1.17
    - #Butanoic acid operates as a powerful inhibitor of histone deacetylase in the regulations of the #Neurotransmitters #Norepinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine, and also modulates the inflammatory and oxidative conditions of intestinal mucosa.

References Notes

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Common References

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