Flavonoid ⇒ Anthocyanins {90000373}

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Once in the gut, proanthocyanins reduce the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increase the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Anthocyanins promote an increase in beneficial bacteria, including #Lactobacilli and #Bifidobacteria, while reducing pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium.
  • [1.2] [#Catechins, #Polyphenols
    - #Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) is a rich source of flavan-3-ols including catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins which were shown to produce a variety of bioavailable #Phenolic acids both in the plasma and brain.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Anthocyanins inhibit LPS-induced microglial activation in BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB translocation into the nucleus and consequently cytokine release including #Nitric Oxide and prostaglandin E2 release
  • [#Depression] [#Phenolic acids] - Anthocyanins can also be broken down into protocatechuic acid, further into the bioactive phenolic acid #Cyanidin-3-glucoside and finally into #3-hydroxycinnamic acid, which has potent anti-depressive effects possibly through mechanisms implicating inflammation.
  • [#Lactobacillus plantarum, #Streptococcus thermophilus] [#Cypto-chlorogenic acid] - mulberry anthocyanins were specifically transformed by S. thermophilus (46.2%) and L. plantarum (43.6%) into #Chlorogenic acid, cypto-#Chlorogenic acid, #Caffeic acid and #Ferulic acid: all #Phenolic acids with potent anti-inflammatory benefits.
  • [1.3
    - all anthocyanins reached a maximal plasma concentration 0.25–1 h post-dose.
  • - nonacylated anthocyanins were 4-fold and 4.7-fold more bioavailable than the acylated anthocyanins in red #Cabbage and purple #Carrot juice, respectively
  • [1.4] [#Flavonoid
    - #Polyphenols exist in various forms including flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanins
  • [1.5] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - higher habitual intakes of total #Flavonoid intake and, specifically anthocyanins (present in berries), were associated with a reduced PD risk of 40%, 24%, and 23% respectively.
  • [1.6] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - anthocyanins were also able to mitigate #Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD by modulating the PI3K/Akt/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) axis
  • - #Capsaicin, #Curcumin, and anthocyanins for instance, have shown to attenuate macrophage migration, in part by suppressing MCP-1 expression
  • [1.7
    - Subtle differences were observed in the faecal microbiota of subjects that were fed the different apples, with significant reductions in relative abundances of #Streptococcus, #Ruminococcus, #Blautia, and #Roseburia, and increased relative abundances of #Sutterella, #Butyricicoccus, and #Lactobacillus in subjects after consuming the red #Apple. - anthocyanin-rich apples may influence immune function compared to control apples

References Notes

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