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Shared Reference Notes
- Molecules, called glycolytics, inhibit aerobic glycolysis and convert cells to a healthier phenotype. - Glycolytics often function by inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α leading to PDC disinhibition allowing for intramitochondrial conversion of pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A. - Melatonin is a glycolytic which converts diseased cells to the healthier phenotype.
- [1.2] [#Human milk oligosaccharides] [#Adult]
- 2′FL/LNnT increased melatonin in #Children, while 3′SL remarkably increased #Folic acid in adults.
- In acute #Colitis, Melatonin led to increased clinical, systemic and intestinal inflammatory parameters. - During remission, continued MLT administration delayed recovery, increased TNF, memory effector lymphocytes and diminished spleen regulatory cells. - MLT treatment reduced #Bacteroidetes and augmented #Actinobacteria and #Verrucomicrobia phyla in mice feces. - Microbiota depletion resulted in a remarkable reversion of the #Colitis phenotype after MLT administration, including a counter-regulatory immune response, reduction in TNF and colon macrophages. - There was a decrease in #Actinobacteria, #Firmicutes and, most strikingly, #Verrucomicrobia phylum in recovering mice. Finally, these results pointed to a gut-microbiota-dependent effect of MLT in the potentiation of intestinal inflammation.
- Melatonin can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier, alter the composition of intestinal bacteria in favor of bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties, regulate the immune response, alleviate inflammation and attenuate #Oxidative stress.
- melatonin administration in animals helped reduce dysbiosis due to #Sleep restriction. - In one of the studies, #Akkermansia muciniphila and #Lactobacilli species were increased in the melatonin-treated animals.
- [#Cancer] - melatonin as a powerful free-radical scavenger with potential protective properties against neurodegenerative disorders, epilepsy, and certain cancers.
- - age-related decreases in endogenous melatonin production are correlated with disease and dysfunction. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate melatonin’s protective ability against mitochondria-mediated injury with #Hypertension and #Obesity,
- In humans, #Light exposure during the night can acutely suppress melatonin levels. Even moderate #Light intensities, similar to #Indoor intensities, are able to cause substantial suppression of melatonin production
- [#Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome] - OSAS patients presented higher melatonin levels in the afternoon than control subjects who did not snore. - The melatonin secretion pattern in OSAS patients shows values in a plateau without the nocturnal peak found in healthy control subjects.
- [1.7] [#Tryptophan]
- Digestion of Trp results in the well-known neuroactive compounds, #Serotonin and melatonin, and is a starting point for the NAD+ -producing #kynurenine pathway in human
- [1.8] [#Multiple Sclerosis]
- #Tryptamine is a neuromodulator with antioxidant characteristics that is produced when commensal bacteria break down #Tryptophan. - Deficits in #Tryptophan-derived #Neurotransmitters like #Serotonin and melatonin, which are both essential for #Sleep, are frequently linked to MS comorbidities, including #Depression