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Glutamate {60000109}

Record Keys

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Initialisation date:

- Precursor for the neurotransmitter GABA
- Glutamate is synthesized in the central nervous system from glutamine

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Meta Information

Structural Type:
Amino acid
Functional Type:


- Excessive glutamate consumption > positively correlated with overweight.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - #5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, #Alanine, glutamate and #Selenium > influence #Proteobacteria.
  • [1.2
    - Elevated levels of #Glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (#GABA) and reduced glutamate were observed in the hippocampus of germ-free mice that received fecal transplants from schizophrenic mice and showed #Schizophrenia-like behaviors.
  • [1.3] [#Celiac Disease, #Migraine] [#CGRP, #Serotonin
  • [1.4] [#Autism
    - The depletion of #Bifidobacterium species has been reported widely in ASD. - #Bifidobacteria are SCFA producers, and “psychobiotics” , and they modulate the gut–brain signals via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolism. - #Bifidobacterium have been reported to improve behavior and prevent #Depression-like behaviors in mice.
  • [1.5] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - In the PD metagenome, we noted a decrease in glutamate/glutamine synthesis gene-families and pathways, and a concomitant increase in both glutamate and #GABA degradation.
  • [1.6] [#Depression
    - Glutamate levels in plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue have been associated with mood and psychotic disorders and suicide.
  • [1.7] [#Bipolar disorder
    - in BD > Especially, #GABA, glutamate, #Serotonin, #Dopamine, norepinephrine and #Acetylcholine appears to be importantly dysregulated in these patients
  • - Several bacteria are able of producing glutamate including Coryneform and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
  • - #GABA is biosynthesized from glutamate due to the action of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase, which is found in eukaryotic cells and in a broad spectrum of bacterial species. - LAB and more specifically certain #Lactobacilli strains are the most important #GABA producers in the gut.
  • [1.8
    - Excesive #Sport > #Prevotella is increased, due to its high BCAA metabolism capacity (lysine biosynthesis), as well as the participation in the metabolism of #Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate, #Glutamine, beyond carbohydrate.
  • [1.9] [#Anorexia nervosa
    - The abundance of GBMs for #Serotonin synthesis and degradation of #Tryptophan, glutamate, and #Dopamine, were enriched in AN.
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease, #Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] - extracellular glutamate leads to excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo in astrocytes and neurons through the overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. - Chronic excitotoxicity is hypothesized to play a role in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, ALS, and #Huntington’s Disease
  • [1.11] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - The pathway most associated with healthy individuals (l-glutamate degradation V) produces the SCFA #Acetate, which not only has been observed to inhibit Aβ aggregation in vitro and protect against #Cognitive impairment in mice but also has been associated with an elevated Aβ SUVR in a human cohort
  • [1.12] [#kynurenic acid
    - enhanced cognitive abilities and memory in model animals have been achieved as a result of enhancing glutamate levels via limiting hippocampal kynurenic supply.
  • [1.13] [#Cognitive impairment] [#Glutamine
    - Disruption within the glutamatergic pathway can lead to cognitive deficits, #Schizophrenia and frontotemporal #Dementia
  • [#Covid-19] - increased levels of #Proline associated with collagen metabolism in long COVID patients. - The glutamate/P5C synthase pathway in the intestine is responsible for most of the #Proline synthesis in the body. - The increased levels of #Proline may arise from #Arginine or #Glutamine pathways, potentially in response to hypoxia or tissue damage.
  • [#Covid-19] - In the post-COVID phase, by the contrary, an increase in #Glutamine concentrations and a decrease in glutamate (higher #Glutamine/glutamate ratio) could be associated with long-term recovery,
  • [1.14] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - #Acetate regulate the release of #Neurotransmitters including glutamate, #Glutamine, and γ-amino butyric acid in the hypothalamus and increase the neuropeptide expression. - #Acetate, as a signaling metabolite that can enhance the maturation of microglia, maintain the homeostatic metabolic state, and regulate microglial phagocytosis and AD pathological progression during neurodegeneration

References Notes

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Common References