Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Human milk lipids {90000420}

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Human milk lipids
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Bifidobacterium infantis] [#Human breast milk
    - #Gangliosides are not antagonistic to all gastrointestinal microorganisms. - Bifidobacterium can grow in the presence of GM-3 and GD-3 while simultaneously lowering ganglioside levels in vitro. - #Bifidobacterium bifidum is very efficient in removing GD-3 by employing extracellular mechanisms, while #Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis degrades GM-3 intracellularly, with overall lower glycosidase activity.
  • [#Human breast milk] - The most abundant #Gangliosides in human milk are monosialoganglioside-3 (GM-3) and disialoganglioside-3 (GD-3). - GD-3 is very abundant in colostrum, while GM-3 increases in abundance at later time points
  • [#Human breast milk] - #Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and #Sphingomyelin contribute up to 40% of all MFGM #Phospholipids, which are subject to intra-individual variation, especially during early lactation
  • [#Sphingomyelin] [#Human breast milk] -The outer MFG membrane also contains most of the sphingomyelins, for which many bactericidal activities against human opportunistic pathogens are described.
  • [#Human breast milk, #Infants] - HMLs also include several compounds that are essential for infant development. For example, phosphorylated lipids, glycosylated lipids, short- and long-chain fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids[8], and several fat-soluble vitamins

References Notes

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Common References