Lactate {60000048}

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Lactate, obtained from the fermentation of non-digestible compounds of dietary fiber, could equally influence the production of propionate and butyrate
  • [1.2] [#Obesity
    - Maternal consumption of #Sweeteners > altered cecal microbial composition and metabolism of #Propionate/lactate in their offspring. - Offspring daily body weight gain, liver weight and body fat > correlate positively to the relative abundance of key microbes and enzymes involved in #Succinate/#Propionate production while negatively correlated to that of #Lactose degradation and lactate production. - The altered #Propionate/lactate production in the cecum of weanlings from aspartame and stevia consuming dams implicates an altered ratio of dietary carbohydrate digestion, mainly #Lactose, in the small intestine vs. microbial fermentation in the large intestine.
  • [1.3
    - Decreased BCAAs and increased TCA intermediates and lactate are common indicators of a broad spectrum of inflammation.
  • [1.4] [#Behcet’s Disease] [#Butyrate, #Lipopolysaccharide
    - These results showed that the gut microbiota in BD patients was enriched with lactic acid-producing bacteria, #Sulfate-reducing bacteria, and some opportunistic pathogens but lacked #Butyric acid-producing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria. - In mice receiving BD feces, it was observed that the intestinal barrier was disrupted with low expression of tight-junction proteins, leading to LPS release into circulation. - enrichment of #Bilophila, Alistipes, and #Paraprevotella was observed in the BD-recipient group.
  • [1.5] [#Gastric bypass surgery
    - #Lactococcus, #Streptococcus, and #Granulicatella are lactate-producing microorganisms, whereas #Dorea and #Blautia are lactate oxidizers
  • - lactate availability is crucial for #Butyrate producers and, therefore, colon epithelium health
  • [1.6
    - excessive neuronal activity accelerates glycolysis to generate lactate, which translocates to the extracellular space to slow neuronal firing and inhibit excitatory transmission via HCA1R. These studies may identify novel anticonvulsant target and #Seizure termination mechanisms.
  • [1.7] [#Dorea formicigenerans
    - D. formicigenerans is a carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria producing #Formic acid and lactate
  • [1.8] [#Infants
    Infant > High abundances of lactate, #Pyruvate and #Formate reflect an immature microbiome since these metabolites are typically converted into other metabolites in the #Adult gut.
  • [#Infants] Infant > Weaning > increased Lactate, #Pyruvate, and #Formate
  • [1.9] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Butyrate can also be synthesized by the gut microbiota from #Acetate and lactate, although the last is not considered a SCFAs
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - higher levels of lactate from glycolysis in BD have been reported, which can relate to metabolic dysfunctions and a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation
  • [#Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome] - OSA-related hypoxia, but not the number of apneas/hypopneas, is associated with specific gut microbiota species and functions. - the cumulative time in hypoxia during sleep was associated with the abundance of genes involved in nine gut microbiota metabolic pathways, including #Propionate production from lactate.
  • [1.11] [#Veillonella atypica] [#Exercise training
    - V. atypica improves run time via its metabolic conversion of exercise-induced lactate into #Propionate.
  • [#Exercise training] - The genus #Veillonella was positively correlated with extensive physical exercise in the post-race samples of marathon runners. - #Veillonella inoculation into mice can significantly increase the exhaustive treadmill run time. - Lactate is the sole carbon source for #Veillonella.
  • [1.12
    - lactate > affect neural plasticity and has a beneficial effect on learning and memory in model animals.
  • - Lactate, a major gut microbiota metabolite, is known to augment neural activity as a primary energy source.
  • [1.13
    - #Veillonella is a gram-negative anaerobic coccus capable of fermenting organic acids such as malate and lactate.
  • [1.14] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - in PD > actate might be further metabolized by other bacteria (e.g., non-#Butyrate-producing lactate-utilizing bacteria) and finally convert to the products that might be detrimental to gut health (e.g., disrupt gut barrier)
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - overall increase in fatty acids fermentation to lactate and #Ethanol, and lower levels of #Deazapurine biosynthesis in RBD-FDR, prodromal PD (RBD) and early PD.
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - The enrichment of lactate production pathway is consistent with the increase of #Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in PD patients
  • [1.15] [#Infants
    - lactate, a regulator of NDRG3, is accumulated in fetal blood and the fetus brain during the perinatal period. - Lactate level in the E18 cortex is six-fold higher than that in the adult brain. - NDRG3 protein levels were significantly decreased during in vitro model of neuronal differentiation, but lactate treatment markedly increased NDRG3 protein accumulation in all courses of differentiation. - lactate level is rapidly decreased in the brain and in the circulation after delivery. - lactate may work as a central modulator of neuronal differentiation in the embryonic state and possibly one of the mechanisms regulating neuronal plasticity.
  • [1.16] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome
    - patients with ME/CFS exhibited elevated blood lactate at rest.
  • [#Covid-19] - (1) supplementation of #Taurine (reducing musculoskeletal disorders); - (2) supplementation of #Citrulline (enhancing #Ammonia clearance and reducing blood lactate, as well as increasing #Arginine bioavailability for adequate NO production); - (3) supplementation of #Glutamine (primary source for #Neurotransmitters and immune function balancing); - (4) supplementation of antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine or NAD + (redox balance); - (5) supplementation of #Arginine (targeting endothelial dysfunction in Long-COVID)
  • - #Covid-19 > Increased level of the lactate/#Pyruvate ratio in class B patients is another important indicator of mitochondrial dysfunction. - The lactate/#Pyruvate ratio has been proposed as a marker for mitochondrial disorders since it indirectly reflects the NADH/NAD + redox state56, lipid metabolism (fat oxidation), and ATP generation.
  • [1.17] [#Multiple Sclerosis
    - lactate, produced by activated Dendritic cells (DCs) and other immune cells, boosts the expression of NDUFA4L2 through a mechanism mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). - NDUFA4L2 limits the production of mitochondrial #Reactive Oxygen Species that activate XBP1-driven transcriptional modules in DCs that are involved in the control of pathogenic autoimmune T cells. - a #Probiotic that produces lactate and suppresses T cell autoimmunity through the activation of HIF-1α–NDUFA4L2 signalling in DCs.
  • [1.18
    - #Propionate biosynthesis at phylum level occurs via two modes: the lactate pathway regulated by #Firmicutes and the #Succinate pathway by #Bacteroidetes
  • - relatively higher lactate levels, coupled with #Firmicutes abundance in LEN, favored #Butyrate production.
  • [1.19] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - a large number of gut bacteria consume #Uric acid anaerobically, converting it to either #Xanthine or lactate and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), #Acetate and #Butyrate.
  • [#Bifidobacterium infantis] [#Para-cresol] - Antibitic resulted dysbiosis > Application of synbiotic #Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis), and #Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) > - increases in lactate-consuming #Veillonella, faster #Acetate recovery, and changes in #Indolelactate and p-cresol #Sulfate, metabolites that impact host inflammatory status. - #Veillonella co-cultured in vitro and in vivo with B. infantis and HMO converts lactate produced by B. infantis to #Propionate, an important mediator of host physiology.
  • [1.21] [#Cancer
    - tumor cells tend to utilize aerobic glycolysis to obtain energy and concomitantly produce a large amount of L-lactate. - tumor cells prefer aerobic glycolysis to obtain massive energy, where a large fraction of #Pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted into lactate
  • [1.22] [#Treponema medium] [#Hydrogen sulfide
    - Complete utilization of #Taurine as electron acceptor in modified #Desulfovibrio liquid medium with electron donors lactate and #Pyruvate in excess resulted in production of nearly quantitative amounts of H2S and excess #Acetate
  • [1.23
    - #Butyrate inhibits glycolysis and switches cell metabolism toward gluconeogenic conditions, thus promoting lactate utilization
  • [1.24] [#Celiac Disease
    - NRCD > Cluster 1 displayed a microbiome associated with immune homeostasis and gut barrier integrity, potentially lowering inflammation and symptom severity. - NRCD > Cluster 2 had a distinct microbiome linked to lactate production, Th17 activation, possibly contributing to heightened inflammation and gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • [1.25] [#Cancer] [#Probiotic
    - similar L-lactate-producing #Lactic acid #Bacteria commensal to other body sites are also significantly associated with survival in colorectal, lung, head and neck, and skin cancers.
  • [#Cancer] [#Probiotic] - that #Lactic acid bacteria in the tumor microenvironment can alter tumor metabolism and lactate signaling pathways, causing therapeutic resistance.
  • - an obligate L-lactate-producing #Lactic acid bacterium found in tumors, #Lactobacillus iners, is associated with decreased survival in patients, induces chemotherapy and radiation resistance in #Cervical cancer cells, and leads to metabolic rewiring, or alterations in multiple metabolic pathways, in tumors.
  • [1.26] [#Veillonella atypica] [#Athletes, #Sport
    - increase in #Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon. - #Veillonella utilize lactate as their sole carbon source > at higher relative abundance postexercise > convert lactate to #Propionate. - V. atypica improves run time via its metabolic conversion of exercise-induced lactate into #Propionate, thereby identifying a natural, microbiome-encoded enzymatic process that enhances athletic performance. - intrarectal instillation of #Propionate in mouse is sufficient to reproduce the increased treadmill run time performance observed with V. atypica gavage.

References Notes

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