Disease ⇒ Hypertension {40000141}

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HTN , HT, high blood pressure (HBP)


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- Higher levels of the genus Ruminococcus > increased risk of high blood pressure. (3)
- Along with a reduction in Bacteroidetes members, hypertensive individuals were indeed mainly characterized by increased proportions of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia while decreased relative abundances of well-known butyrate-producing commensals, including Roseburia and Faecalibacterium within the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Along with a reduction in Bacteroidetes members, hypertensive individuals were indeed mainly characterized by increased proportions of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia while decreased relative abundances of well-known butyrate-producing commensals, including Roseburia and Faecalibacterium within the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families.
  • [1.2
    - Sodium reduction > increased all 8 SCFAs > significant increases in 2-methylbutyrate, butyrate, hexanoate, isobutyrate, and valerate. - Increased SCFAs > decreased blood pressure and improved arterial compliance > significant sex differences of SCFAs in response to sodium reduction. - Sodium reduction only in Female > significant increases in butyrate, hexanoate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate. - In females > changes in isobutyrate, isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyrate > inversely associated with reduced blood pressures. - Increased valerate > associated with decreased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity.
  • [1.3
    - Elevated putative #Succinate-producing bacteria and #Acetate-producing bacteria > respectively, lower and higher mean arterial pressure in mouse - #Prevotella and #Klebsiella > overrepresented in individuals with pHTN or HTN.
  • [1.4] [#Akkermansia muciniphila] [#Thiamin
    - A. muciniphila > vitamin B1 productio > may influence blood pressure.
  • [1.5] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Olf78 >The last receptor for SCFAs > observed in the olfactory bulb, enteroendocrine cells, the kidney, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, and heart. - Acetate and propionate, but not butyrate > stimulate Olf78 > induces an increase in blood pressure via renin secretion .
  • [1.6
    - A 5-day fast followed by a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet reduces systolic blood pressure, need for antihypertensive medications, body-mass index at three months post intervention compared to a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet alone. - #Fasting alters > gut microbiome > impacting bacterial taxa and gene modules associated with short-chain fatty acid production.
  • - #Propionate treatment in mice > antihypertensive effect.
  • [1.7
  • [1.8
  • [1.9
    - #Prevotella copri > thrives in a pro-inflammatory environment. - The superoxide reductase and phosphoadenosine phosphosulphate reductase encoded by #Prevotella copri > may favor the development of inflammation. - Colonization with #Prevotella copri > enhances body weight loss and exacerbates epithelial inflammation in colitis mouse model.
  • - 9,10-dichloro-octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) > positive association > microflora including Klebsiella, #Prevotella, and Enterbacter > all overrepresented in HTN. - In HTN > microbial richness and diversity > decreased with #Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype. - Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, Roseburia, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, and Butyrivibrio > declined in pHTN and HTN patients. - The enterotype dominated by #Prevotella > increased in pHTN and HTN populations. - Stearic acid, an important metabolite in HTN, is positively linked to #Prevotella. - #Prevotella > triggering the inflammatory response > HTN.
  • [1.11
    - Nitrate-rich supplements > stimulate nitrate reduction by the oral microbiota > resulting in a lowering of blood pressure.
  • [1.12
    - Coexisting hypertension and #Periodontal disease > increased #Neisseria and #Solobacterium genera
  • [1.13
    - Abundance of #Blautia and #Odoribacter showed a negative correlation with high SBP
  • [1.14
    - Blood pressure > increased #Acetate, #Butyrate, and #Propionate
  • [1.15] [#High salt diet
    - Salt consumption decreased #Lactobacillus abundance, which was linked to increased T helper 17 cell numbers in murine small intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes and human peripheral blood lymphocytes, as well as higher blood pressure. - a high-salt diet reduced #Lactobacillus abundance, increased proinflammatory gene expression, and exacerbated #Colitis in two separate disease models
  • [1.16
    - Persons with hypertension had lower #Propionate concentrations
  • [1.17] [#Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
    - the OSA-related hypoxia parameters were associated with the relative abundance of 128 gut bacterial species, including higher abundance of #Blautia obeum and #Collinsella aerofaciens. - #Collinsella aerofaciens was also independently associated with increased systolic BP.
  • [1.18
    - age-related decreases in endogenous #Melatonin production are correlated with disease and dysfunction. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate #Melatonin’s protective ability against mitochondria-mediated injury with hypertension and #Obesity,
  • [1.19] [#Bacteroides-Prevotella group
    - only #Faecalibacterium, but not #Blautia, #Anaerostipes, or #Megamonas, was significantly lower in the hypertension group
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide, #Short Chain Fatty Acid] - hypertension groups > low gut microbial diversity and some distinctive taxa, depleted SCFA-producing bacteria, such as Ruminococcacea and #Faecalibacterium, and enriched LPS-producing gram-negative bacteria, such as #Bacteroidales, #Negativiticus, and #Megamonas,
  • - the hypertensive group had higher levels of Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly from the families #Bacteroidetes and #Negativicutes.
  • - #Butyrate can enter the bloodstream and exert a potent hypotensive effect by preventing vascular inflammation. - It can also act on vagal afferent neurons and the central nervous system to affect blood pressure.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - normotension group exhibited higher levels of Gram-positive bacteria, such as #Clostridia, #Ruminococcaceae, and #Lachnospiraceae, which are mostly SCFA-producing bacteria.
  • - #Faecalibacterium is the most potent #Butyrate-producing bacteria and the biomarker most closely associated with hypertension prevention.
  • [#Atrial fibrillation] - An association between #Enorma and hypertension, which is strongly related to AF, has also been reported.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Blood pressure is a strong AF risk factor. - Bacteria of the genus #Odoribacter odproduce the SCFA acid #Butyrate, a signalling molecule in blood pressure control. - SCFAs interact with G-protein coupled receptor pathways including renin secretion and sympathetic activation,which are central to blood pressure regulation.
  • [1.21] [#Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
    - OSA activates therenin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) system, leading to an increase in BP and causing volume overload, contributing to the development of hypertension and CVDs. - OSA is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity, which can further exacerbate hypertension and #CVD risk in diabetes. - Sympathetic activation can increase heart rate and vasoconstriction, leading to arrhythmias.
  • [1.22] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs, produced by the fermentation of fiber by gut microbiota, may activate receptors in the kidneys and blood vessels to inhibit renin release and decrease blood pressure
  • [1.23
    - TLR7 activation is associated with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and gut dysbiosis.
  • [#Systemic lupus erythematosus] - #Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 or #Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 prevented hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in a mouse lupus model induced by TLR-7 activation.
  • [#Antibiotic Therapy] - #Doxycycline has shown to attenuate blood pressure increase in different animal models of hypertension and to improve various aspects of vascular health. - #Doxycycline can influence the gut microbiota and improve intestinal barrier function, owing to its direct impact on the gut microbiota, as well as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.
  • [1.24] [#Heat shock proteins
    - HSPs function as an immunomodulator, promoting the production of cytokines or transmitting receptor-mediated signals to other cells. - Hypertension, a risk factor for #Atherosclerosis, has been shown in studies to increase HSP secretion from macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells.
  • [1.25] [#Clostridium sporogenes
    - C sporogenes, can convert dietary protein derived #Phenylalanine to #Phenylacetic acid, which is then converted by liver enzymes to #Phenylacetylglutamine, a metabolite linked with hypertension and increased risk of #Stroke.
  • [1.26] [#Gestational Hypertension
    - #Bacillus was associated with high blood pressure
  • [#Gestational Hypertension] - a negative association between #Shewanella and Diastolic BP. - #Shewanella, commonly known as an environmental bacteria, has recently been reported to play an important role in multiple drug resistances
  • - #Butyrate significantly reduces the effects of #Lipopolysaccharide, thereby promoting macrophage 1 polarization and inhibiting macrophage 2 polarization, ultimately leading to a reduction in blood pressure
  • [1.27
    - #Alistipes was associated with the level of bile acid, influencing portal hypertension though farnesoid-X receptor - #Alistipes might affect the host hypertension via bile acid metabolism.
  • - the strong negative correlation between #Alistipes and steroid hormone biosynthesis may suggest that #Alistipes could reduce the BP by regulating steroid hormone biosynthesis, which is associated with hypertension
  • - The probiotics-reduced BP was associated with the increased #Lawsonia and #Pyrolobus and reduced #Alistipes and #Alloprevotella.
  • [#Bifidobacterium animalis lactis] - the decreased level of #Alistipes induced by B. lactis M8 was correlated with the reduced level of BP, consistent with previous reports that #Alistipes was positively correlated with BP
  • [#Probiotic] - the probiotics reduced the abundance of #Alistipes and increased the level of #Pyrolobus, which is associated with lipid and vitamin metabolism, subsequently attenuating the development of hypertension.
  • - BP was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of #Allobaculum
  • - #Allobaculum in mucin degradation and its inverse correlation with circulating #Leptin levels, known to influence BP
  • - #Alloprevotella associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension by promoting the epithelial inflammatory response
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - The increased abundance of #Alloprevotella in the hypertensive mice was in line with a previous report that the SCFAs have higher levels in the feces of hypertensive individuals
  • - In the serotonergic synapse pathway, #Arachidonic acid can relax blood vessels and reduce hypertension
  • [#Bifidobacterium animalis lactis, #Lactobacillus rhamnosus] - the probiotics B. lactis M8 and L. rhamnosus M9 significantly reduced BP levels.
  • [#Lactobacillus rhamnosus] - #Coprobacillus and #Butyricimonas, were both more abundant in the L. rhamnosus M9 group as compared to the #Fructose group, which suggests their roles in BP regulation.
  • [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] - Lactobacillus reuteri was found to increase the serum #Vitamin D level. - #Vitamin D plays a role in suppressing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity, improving function of vascular wall and alleviating vascular #Oxidative stress to regulate hypertension
  • [1.28
    - A lower abundance of #Akkermansia has been linked with lifestyle diseases such as #Obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and liver steatosis.
  • [1.29] [#High fibre diet
    - the minimum daily dietary fiber for adults with hypertension should be >28 g/day for women and >38 g/day for men, with each extra 5 g/day estimated to reduce systolic BP by 2.8 mm Hg and diastolic BP by 2.1 mm Hg.
  • - Bacteroidetes (Odoribacter and Alistipes genera) > often contribute to the overall butyrogenic pool. - SCFA-producing bacteria > may affect blood pressure by direct effects of SCFA on vasodilation or through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)

References Notes

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