Phenylacetylglutamine {90000368}

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Atherosclerosis, #CVD
    - gut microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary #Phenylalanine into #Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is critical in phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln) production, a metabolite linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). - PPFOR is the main contributor for PAA production in #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. - PPDC plays an important role in PAA generation in #Proteus mirabilis. - PPFOR and PPDC contribute to PAA production and PAGln formation in colonized hosts. - Gut microbial ppdc and ppfor homolog abundances are each associated with ASCVD in humans.
  • [1.2] [#Prostate cancer
    - Men who have greater levels of #Choline, #Betaine, or PCA-related metabolites linked to the gut microbiome (such as phenylacetylglutamine) have around two times as many chances of developing incident PCA cancer in the future.
  • [1.3
    - higher concentrations of five metabolites, namely 1-oleoylglycerophosphoethanolamine, 1palmitoylglycerophosphoethanolamine, 1,6-anhydroglucose, phenylacetylglutamine, #Tryptophan #Betaine, were strongly linked to higher #Celiac Disease risk
  • [1.4] [#Clostridium sporogenes
    - C sporogenes, can convert dietary protein derived #Phenylalanine to #Phenylacetic acid, which is then converted by liver enzymes to phenylacetylglutamine, a metabolite linked with #Hypertension and increased risk of #Stroke.
  • [1.5
    - circulating PAG levels to different families of gut microbes such as #Coriobacteriaceae, #Mogibacteriaceae, #Bifidobacteriaceae, with genera in the #Lachnospiraceae, #Christensenellaceae and #Ruminococcaceae families and with gut microbiome diversity.
  • - high plasma levels of PAG have been observed in patients with #Chronic kidney disease.
  • [#Coronary artery disease, #CVD] - the association between PAG and incident CAD is independent of inflammation, as the association remained significant after adjustment for CRP in MDC-CC.
  • [#Coronary artery disease] - three genera in the #Lachnospiraceae family that were inversely correlated with PAG, were themselves positively correlated with the FRS. - association between PAG and incident CAD is significant in both individuals with high and with low of FRS.
  • - patients with #Chronic kidney disease (CKD) circulating PAG was found to be associated with risk of future #CVD
  • [#CVD] [#Gender] - PAG has previously been shown to correlate with increased arterial stiffness in women [20]. Given the association between arterial stiffness and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it is possible that the association between PAG and incident CAD could be driven by arterial stiffness.
  • - PAG (phenylacetylglutamine) is a well known microbial metabolite that is formed from the conjugation of #Glutamine and phenylacetate, which almost exclusively originates from bacterial #Phenylalanine metabolism

References Notes

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