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Keto diet {50000136}

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Keto diet
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A ketogenic, or “keto”, diet contains very few carbohydrates, which the body uses as fuel. When short on carbs, the body starts to break down its fat reserves to produce molecules called ketones, as an alternative source of energy.


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- ketone bodies selectively inhibited bifidobacterial growth in a dose- and pH-dependent mechanism.
- the keto diet mediates the lack of intestinal pro-inflammatory Th17 induction by reducing colonization levels of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.
- Bifidobacterium levels decreased with increasing carbohydrate restriction, thus highlighting that carbohydrate restriction, rather than high-fat intake, is the main contributor to the keto diet’s impact on the gut microbiome. (1)

- Fungi in gut linked to higher Alzheimer’s risk can be reduced through ketogenic diet(2).

- Good monounsaturated fat sources include: (3)
Olive oil
Avocado and avocado oil
Canola oil
Macadamia nuts
Blue-green algae

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#β-hydroxybutyrate
    - Ketogenic diets (KDs) > alter the gut microbiota in a manner distinct from high-fat diets - β-hydroxybutyrate selectively inhibits bifidobacterial growth
  • [1.2] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - MD-ketogenic diet improved the AD biomarkers viz. amyloid and tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluids of MCI patients, wherein these changes linked with increased gut #Butyrate. - There is a significant reduction in Aβ levels and increase in behavioral responses after 12-weeks of sodium #Butyrate supplementation in mouse
  • [1.3] [#Glioblastoma
    - This is the first report of confirmed IDH1-mutant GBM treated with KMT and surgical debulking without chemo- or radiotherapy. The long-term survival of this patient, now at 80 months, could be due in part to a therapeutic metabolic synergy between KMT and the IDH1 mutation that simultaneously target the glycolysis and glutaminolysis pathways that are essential for GBM growth.
  • [1.4] [#Cognitive impairment
    - Carbohydrate-restricted (ketogenic) diet potentiates CI induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice and alters the gut microbiota. - Depleting the microbiome reduces CI, whereas transplantation of the risk-associated microbiome or monocolonization with #Bilophila wadsworthia confers CI in mice fed a standard diet. - B. wadsworthia and the risk-associated microbiome disrupt hippocampal synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and gene expression. - The CI is associated with microbiome-dependent increases in intestinal interferon-gamma (IFNg)-producing Th1 cells. - Inhibiting Th1 cell development abrogates the adverse effects of both B. wadsworthia and environmental risk factors on CI.
  • [1.5
    - KD increased the relative abundances of Streptococcus infantis , S. lactarius , S. thermophilus , Lactococcus lactis and decreased Lactobacillus johnsonii and Escherichia coli
  • [1.6] [#Drug-resistant Epilepsy
    - ketogenic diet has been shown to increase the level of #GABA in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with refractory epilepsy
  • [1.7] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - Ketogenic Diet increases ketone bodies and reduces oxidative stress brought on by excessive ROS. Evidence from animal models of PD showed promise, as ketone bodies acted neuroprotectively and improved motor skills.
  • [1.8] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - The ketogenic diet can improve memory, reduce amyloid plaques, reduce neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation.
  • [1.9] [#Alzheimer’s disease
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] - KD has been shown to lead to the reduction of hyperinsulinemia and the improvement of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes
  • -The KD has also been associated with antioxidant effects, generating a reduced amount of ROS (#Reactive Oxygen Species) and reshaping gut microbiota
  • [1.11] [#Bacteroides fragilis
    - #Bacteroides increased significantly after KD intervention, especially #Bacteroides fragilis.
  • - KD intervention reduced the abundance of #Firmicutes in the patient’s gut, while the abundance of #Bacteroidota increased in the KD group.
  • [#Drug-resistant Epilepsy] - The ketogenic diet (KD) has shown excellent performance in the treatment of refractory epilepsy
  • [1.12] [#Acetylcholine, #Noradrenalin, #Serotonin
    - concentrations of 5-HT, NE, AC, and cAMP of SHR in the KD group were strikingly higher than that in the ND group.
  • [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] [#Dopamine] - KD could relieve behavioral symptoms of ADHD in SHR, increase neurotransmitter expression, and increase protein expression of DA-related genes (DRD1, DAT, PKA, DARPP32, and cAMP).
  • [#Bacteroides-Prevotella group, #Ruminococcus gauvreauii] - The abundance of Ruminococcus_gauvreauii_group, #Bacteroides, #Bifidobacterium, and #Blautia significantly increased, whereas that of #Lactobacillus, #Romboutsia, #Facklamia, and #Turicibacter significantly declined in the KD group compared with the ND group.
  • [1.13] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - high-ketogenic diet is the most promising therapeutic method for mitigating AD because it may restore the metabolic imbalance caused due to the occurrence of aerobic glycolysis in the neurons and the microglia. - The proposed high-ketogenic diet with low carbohydrates enhanced the supply of ketone bodies biosynthesized in the liver using free fatty acids as a substitute for those cells with a high demand for #Glucose
  • [#β-hydroxybutyrate] - The ketogenic diet, assuming a very high-fat/low-carbohydrate, is aimed to trigger a metabolic reprogramming from the glucose metabolism towards the fatty acids metabolism yielding ketone bodies including β-hydroxybutyrate as substrates for energy > alleviating the symptoms of AD.
  • [1.14
    - Ketogenic diet exposure significantly altered gut microbial community structure, which was characterized by notably decreased #Bifidobacterium.
  • [#β-hydroxybutyrate] - ketogenic states, induced by ketogenic diet or #Fasting, effectively drive BHB generation both in liver and intestine.
  • [#β-hydroxybutyrate] - BHB, generated during ketogenic diet, directly inhibit growth of bifidobacterial, which thereby impact immune responses through regulating intestinal Th17 cells populations.
  • [1.15
    - #Coprococcus abundance was decreased in subjects who were fed a ketogenic diet

References Notes

  • (2) [1.16

Common References