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Shared Reference Notes
- [1.1] [#Alzheimer’s disease]
- Reduction of glutamine > causally associated with occurrence of AD.
- #Butyrate administration to mothers > renders newborn mice resistant to inflammation and injury of bile ducts > improves survival. - Bacteroidetes and Clostridia and increases glutamate/glutamine and hypoxanthine in stool metabolites of newborn mice > prevention of hepatic immune cell activation and survival. - In human neonates with #Biliary atresia, the fecal microbiome signature of these bacteria is under-represented, with suppression of glutamate/glutamine and increased hypoxanthine pathways. - The direct administration of #Butyrate or glutamine to newborn mice attenuates the disease phenotype, but only glutamine renders bile duct epithelial cells resistant to cytotoxicity by natural killer cells.
- Elevated levels of glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (#GABA) and reduced #Glutamate were observed in the hippocampus of germ-free mice that received fecal transplants from schizophrenic mice and showed #Schizophrenia-like behaviors.
- [1.4] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome]
- glutamine and #Ornithine serum levels in ME/CFS were lower, and correlated with metabolites linked to the urea cycle.