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Shared Reference Notes
- [1.1] [#Alzheimer’s disease]
- Reduction of glutamine > causally associated with occurrence of AD.
- #Butyrate administration to mothers > renders newborn mice resistant to inflammation and injury of bile ducts > improves survival. - Bacteroidetes and Clostridia and increases glutamate/glutamine and hypoxanthine in stool metabolites of newborn mice > prevention of hepatic immune cell activation and survival. - In human neonates with #Biliary atresia, the fecal microbiome signature of these bacteria is under-represented, with suppression of glutamate/glutamine and increased hypoxanthine pathways. - The direct administration of #Butyrate or glutamine to newborn mice attenuates the disease phenotype, but only glutamine renders bile duct epithelial cells resistant to cytotoxicity by natural killer cells.
- Elevated levels of glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (#GABA) and reduced #Glutamate were observed in the hippocampus of germ-free mice that received fecal transplants from schizophrenic mice and showed #Schizophrenia-like behaviors.
- [1.4] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome]
- glutamine and #Ornithine serum levels in ME/CFS were lower, and correlated with metabolites linked to the urea cycle.
- Excesive #Sport > #Prevotella is increased, due to its high BCAA metabolism capacity (lysine biosynthesis), as well as the participation in the metabolism of #Alanine, aspartate, and #Glutamate, glutamine, beyond carbohydrate.
- [1.6] [#Alcoholic Hepatitis, #Alcoholism]
- Gln supplementation attenuated #Ethanol-induced mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in a dose-dependent manner
- - glutamine (Gln) prevents acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers and human colonic mucosa.
- In bacteria, glutamine is also of central importance and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of key nitrogen-compounds and glutamine supplementation has shown to promote and support populations of fiber-degrading bacteria
- [1.8] [#Cognitive impairment] [#Glutamate]
- Disruption within the glutamatergic pathway can lead to cognitive deficits, #Schizophrenia and frontotemporal #Dementia
- [#Covid-19] - (1) supplementation of #Taurine (reducing musculoskeletal disorders); - (2) supplementation of #Citrulline (enhancing #Ammonia clearance and reducing blood #Lactate, as well as increasing #Arginine bioavailability for adequate NO production); - (3) supplementation of glutamine (primary source for #Neurotransmitters and immune function balancing); - (4) supplementation of antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine or NAD + (redox balance); - (5) supplementation of #Arginine (targeting endothelial dysfunction in Long-COVID)
- [#Covid-19] - increased levels of #Proline associated with collagen metabolism in long COVID patients. - The #Glutamate/P5C synthase pathway in the intestine is responsible for most of the #Proline synthesis in the body. - The increased levels of #Proline may arise from #Arginine or glutamine pathways, potentially in response to hypoxia or tissue damage.
- [#Covid-19] - In the post-COVID phase, by the contrary, an increase in glutamine concentrations and a decrease in #Glutamate (higher glutamine/#Glutamate ratio) could be associated with long-term recovery,
- - During #Covid-19 phase, a decrease in circulating levels of glutamine has been widely described.
- #lactulose exerts its beneficial effects on #Hepatic encephalopathy through different pathways. - First, the product of #lactulose fermentation is #Lactic acid, which is able to reduce the colonic lumen pH by releasing H+. - The #Ammonia in the gut reacts with proton and produces ammonium. This conversion develops a concentration gradient that increases the amount of #Ammonia reuptake from the blood into the gastrointestinal tract. - Second, in the presence of #lactulose in the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria utilize the energy of #lactulose fermentation instead of the conversion of amino acids to #Ammonia energy. - Third, #lactulose can inhibit glutaminase and prevent the production of #Ammonia from glutamine. - Finally, #lactulose shortens the colonic transit time. Thus, it can reduce the level of #Ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract.
- [#Alzheimer’s disease] - #Acetate regulate the release of #Neurotransmitters including #Glutamate, glutamine, and γ-amino butyric acid in the hypothalamus and increase the neuropeptide expression. - #Acetate, as a signaling metabolite that can enhance the maturation of microglia, maintain the homeostatic metabolic state, and regulate microglial phagocytosis and AD pathological progression during neurodegeneration
- gut #Ammonia links microbe nitrogen metabolism to host stress vulnerability by maintaining brain glutamine availability in male mice. - abnormally low blood #Ammonia levels limit the brain’s availability of glutamine, a key metabolite produced by astrocytes that is required for presynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (#GABA) replenishment and confers stress vulnerability through cortical GABAergic dysfunction.