Citrulline {90000466}

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Oral administration of Metformin
    - Metformin treatment is associated with reduced #Breast cancer incidence, recurrence and mortality. - metformin treatment was significantly associated with decreased levels of citrulline, #Arginine, #Tyrosine, caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, and increased levels of leucine, isoleucine, proline, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, 4-methyl-2-oxovalerate, alanine and indoxyl-sulphate. - Long-chain unsaturated phosphatidylcholines were significantly decreased with the metformin treatment, as were phospholipid-derived long-chain n-6 fatty acids. - The metabolomic profiles of metformin treatment suggest change in specific biochemical pathways known to impair cancer cell growth including activation of CYP1A2, alterations in fatty acid desaturase activity, and altered metabolism of specific amino acids, including impaired branched chain amino acid catabolism.
  • [1.2] [#Ceramides, #Para-cresol] [#Aging
    - Among metabolites that were positively associated with age, seven were common in all four groups (aconitic acid, #Choline, citrulline, #Cysteine, cystine, #kynurenine, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and 10 were common in three out of four groups (aspartic acid, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), butyrylcarnitine, ceramide d18:1/24:1, ceramide d18:1/25:0, ceramide d18:2/24:1, hippuric acid, homocysteine, methionine sulfoxide, and p-cresol #Sulfate)
  • [1.3
    - Citrulline (CIT) (commonly found as l–citrulline), a non-essential amino acid with unique metabolic properties, has been implicated in several regulatory roles, including gut modulation, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, protein synthesis, nitrogen homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, renal function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function, vascular health, lipid and energy metabolism, #Arginine production, and thermoregulation. - citrulline is largely concentrated in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai Cucurbitaceae) fruits, but although present in vegetative tissues (such as stems, seedlings, and leaves) and root, citrulline is confirmed to progressively accumulate majorly in the fruit flesh and rind tissues of watermelons. - Within the small intestine, citrulline is synthesized from glutamine by the enterocytes, releasing citrulline into blood circulation for metabolism into #Arginine by the kidneys.
  • [1.4] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome
    - #Covid-19 > The increased #Ornithine/citrulline ratio level in class B patients reflects abnormal metabolic activity in the urea cycle. - a similarly increased #Ornithine/citrulline ratio in CFS patients
  • [#Covid-19] - (1) supplementation of #Taurine (reducing musculoskeletal disorders); - (2) supplementation of citrulline (enhancing #Ammonia clearance and reducing blood #Lactate, as well as increasing #Arginine bioavailability for adequate NO production); - (3) supplementation of #Glutamine (primary source for #Neurotransmitters and immune function balancing); - (4) supplementation of antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine or NAD + (redox balance); - (5) supplementation of #Arginine (targeting endothelial dysfunction in Long-COVID)
  • [1.5] [#Rheumatoid Arthritis
    - Both citrulline and #Arginine have anti-inflammatory properties and #Arginine is in phase 2 trial in treatment of RA
  • [1.6
    - #Arginine metabolism mainly produces urea and #Ornithine via the arginase pathway and #Nitric Oxide (NO) and citrulline via the #Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) pathway

References Notes

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