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Shared Reference Notes
- #Grape seed #Polyphenol extract (GSPE) is a rich source of flavan-3-ols including catechin, epicatechin, and #Anthocyanins which were shown to produce a variety of bioavailable #Phenolic acids both in the plasma and brain.
- [#Epicatechins] - Epicatechin, catechin and the #Proanthocyanidins are the main flavan-3-ols metabolized by the gut microbiota that also elicit beneficial anti-inflammatory effects.
- [#Grape seed] - Catechins and #Epicatechins are major constituents of #Grape seed extracts and the production of their bioactive metabolites is dependent on the presence of the microbiota
- [#Lipopolysaccharide] - A major #Green Tea catechin, #Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has many neuroprotective abilities, neuroinflammation being just one of them. Pretreatment of outbred ICR mice with EGCG for 3 weeks (1.5 and 3 mg/kg/day) prior to LPS injection for 7 days prevented the LPS-induced memory impairment and apoptotic neuronal cell death.
- - #Eggerthella lenta JCM 9979 was shown to facilitate the C-ring cleavage of #Epicatechins and catechins and the subsequent 4’-dehydroxylation to produce different intermediate metabolites.
- [#Lactobacillus plantarum] [#Phenolic acids, #Polymeric procyanidins] - L. plantarum IFPL935 was found to be important in the first step of catechin and procyanidin catabolism involving ring fission, however did not impact the production of phenolic metabolites unless in the context of a complete microbiota indicating that there is another microbe using the metabolic intermediate of L. plantarum to produce the bioactive metabolites.
- - in a rat model of #Traumatic Brain Injury, catechin treatment was shown to be neuroprotective by dually protecting both BBB integrity and excessive neuroinflammation