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Shared Reference Notes
- [1.1] [#Multiple Sclerosis] [#Isoflavone diet, #Phytoestrogen-free (phyto-free) diet]
- gut microbiota of MS Patients resembles the gut microbiota of mice raised under a phytoestrogen-free (phyto-free) diet in that it lacks phytoestrogen-metabolizing bacteria. - the change in diet from one that is ISO to one that is PF reduces beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium species. - isoflavone-rich diet specifically modulates LPS biosynthesis of the gut microbiota imparts an anti-inflammatory response and decreases disease severity
- gut bacteria can metabolize isoflavones into #Equol, which has a higher affinity for endogenous estrogen receptors compared to dietary isoflavones. - #Isoflavone-rich diet can protect from neuroinflammatory diseases, and that protection was dependent on the ability of gut bacteria to metabolize isoflavones into #Equol. - mice on a diet with isoflavones showed an anti-inflammatory response compared to the mice on a diet lacking isoflavones.
- - patients with #Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a neuroinflammatory disease, lack gut bacteria that are able to metabolize phytoestrogen.
- microbiome of mice on a phytoestrogen-free diet resembled the microbiome of PwMS characterized by a higher abundance of #Akkermansia muciniphila
- - the change in diet from an #Isoflavone diet to a phytoestrogen-free diet significantly reduced the abundance of Bifidobacterium species, specifically #Bifidobacterium adolescentis and #Bifidobacterium longum
- - Humans do not have the capacity to metabolize phytoestrogen, but certain gut bacteria can metabolize them to produce metabolites such as S-#Equol (#Equol) from isoflavones, which shows significantly higher estrogenic activity than the original isoflavones
- [#Lipopolysaccharide] - the LPS derived from the feces of mice kept on the phytoestrogen-free diet induced significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, #IL-6, #IL-12/23, and CXCL1 compared to the LPS derived from feces of mice kept on the #Isoflavone-diet.
- [#Multiple Sclerosis] [#Estrogen] - Estrogens have also been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties and ameliorate MS during #Pregnancy
- [#Multiple Sclerosis] - Several gut bacteria lacking in MS such as #Prevotella, #Parabacteroides, #Adlercreutzia, and #Bifidobacterium can metabolize dietary phytoestrogen.
- [#Multiple Sclerosis] [#Isoflavone] - mice on a diet with isoflavones (a type of phytoestrogen) are protected from EAE> depended on the presence of gut microbiota as antibiotic depletion of microbiota abrogated the disease protective effect, and supplementation with phytoestrogen metabolizing bacteria restored disease protective function.
- [#Multiple Sclerosis] - MS patients lack gut bacteria capable of metabolizing dietary phytoestrogen
- #Eggerthella in humans has been shown to produce #Equol, a phytoestrogen, with estrogenic properties and binding affinity to #Estrogen receptors