Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Resistant starch {51111271}

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Resistant starch
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Diet, Prebiotic
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Consuming resistant potato starch
    - Lower intake of RS > increased relative abundance of #Actinobacteria
  • [#Obesity, #Diabetes Type 2] [#Gender] - gut microbiota, especially #Faecalibacterium, Predict postprandial glucose response (PPGR) after eating potatoes.
  • [1.2
    - RS consumption was associated with an increased abundance of either #Bacteroides or #Prevotella transcripts.
  • [1.3
    - Resistant starch is further subdivided into five types depending upon its structural features. - RS type 1 (RS1) is physically inaccessible starch and has the most complex structures as it is frequently found entrapped within protein matrix or non-starch components of the plant cell wall (e.g., whole grains or pulses). - The RS type 2 possesses native, uncooked, and semi-crystalline starch granules having a B- or C-type polymorph (e.g., high-amylose starch, raw potato starch). Compared to RS1, the cellular structure is absent in RS type 2 (RS2). - The RS type 3 (RS3) is obtained by retrogradation process upon cooking and cooling of starch-containing foods. Its resistance to digestion could be due to lower activity of pancreatic α-amylases toward starch double helices as against fully gelatinized starch molecules (e.g., retrograded high amylose maize starch). - The RS type 4 (RS4) is the starch-modified through chemical processes such as esterification, crosslinking, hydroxypropylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. The functional groups block the site of action of starch digestive enzymes, which confers resistance of RS4 to digestion. - The RS type 5 (RS5) is defined as the starch obtained by complex formation between high amylose starch with the lipids, which further increases the enzyme resistance of high amylose by preventing granule swelling during cooking.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - RS fermentation in the lower GI tract produces different starch oligomers and SCFAs
  • [1.4] [#Butyrate
    - resistant starch was highly butyrogenic
  • [#Ruminococcaceae] - resistant starch prebiotic fibers > increase Prevotella and families #Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococaceae
  • [#Inulin, #Maltodextrin, #Rice] - The relative abundance of the pro-inflammatory phylum #Proteobacteria was decreased by the prebiotic intervention
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Resistant #Maltodextrin and #Inulin produced the greatest increase in total SCFA levels followed by resistant starch and #Rice bran
  • [1.5] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - #Ruminococcus was shown to possess an exceptional ability to colonize and degrade #Starch particles, which in turn alleviates insulin resistance.
  • [1.6
    - The #Bile Acids-binding capacity of RS could aid in weight management, glycemic index modulation, and #Cholesterol reduction
  • [1.7
    - The resistant starches increased #Butyrate
  • [1.8
    - RS could also be degraded by #Ruminococcus bromii, and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and also to a lesser extent by #Eubacterium rectale and #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. - in the mixed bacterial and fecal incubations, RS degradation is impossible in the absence of R. bromii
  • [1.9] [#Chronic liver disease, #Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease] [#Bacteroides stercoris
    - RS reduced the abundance in the gut of B. stercoris, which is one of the species highly correlated with IHTC, ALT, and AST. - positive association of B. stercoris in the gut with NAFLD
  • [#Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease] [#Fibroblast growth factor 21] - The serum level of FGF21 was found to be significantly reduced after the 4-month RS intervention. - FGF21 > alleviation of #Dyslipidemia and NAFLD. - circulating FGF21 is paradoxically elevated in individuals with NAFLD > FGF21 resistance in analogy to obesity-associated insulin and leptin resistance. - aberrant FGF21 signaling has been suggested as a key pathological step in the development and progression of NAFLD.
  • - Serum levels of two AAAs, #Phenylalanine and #Tyrosine, were significantly lower after RS than CS intervention, and serum #Glutamic acid for GSG index calculation was significantly reduced after RS intake
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - decreased circulating level of LPS and the lower microbiota functional potential for LPS biosynthesis in human participants after RS intake
  • [#Non alcoholic steatohepatitis, #Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease] [#Branched-chain amino acids] - 4-month RS intervention in humans could significantly reduce the serum levels of BCAAs. - serum BCAAs were positively correlated with IHTC, ALT, AST, and GGT > direct influence of BCAAs on hepatic steatosis and thus NAFLD pathogenesis.
  • [#Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease] [#Branched-chain amino acids] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation] - FMT > transfer of RS-altered microbiota into mice alleviated NAFLD, the colonic levels of BCAAs were also decreased
  • [#Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease] [#Fibroblast growth factor 21] - decreased serum level of FGF21 in participants after RS intervention and in mice receiving feces from RS-fed donors,. - increased expression of its receptor complex and downstream effector in adipose tissue.

References Notes

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Common References