Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Resistant starch {51111271}

Record Keys

Resistant starch
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Meta Information

Diet, Prebiotic
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Consuming resistant potato starch
    - Lower intake of RS > increased relative abundance of #Actinobacteria
  • [#Diabetes Type 2, #Obesity] [#Gender] - gut microbiota, especially #Faecalibacterium, Predict postprandial glucose response (PPGR) after eating potatoes.
  • [1.2
    - RS consumption was associated with an increased abundance of either #Bacteroides or #Prevotella transcripts.
  • [1.3
    - Resistant starch is further subdivided into five types depending upon its structural features. - RS type 1 (RS1) is physically inaccessible starch and has the most complex structures as it is frequently found entrapped within protein matrix or non-starch components of the plant cell wall (e.g., whole grains or pulses). - The RS type 2 possesses native, uncooked, and semi-crystalline starch granules having a B- or C-type polymorph (e.g., high-amylose starch, raw potato starch). Compared to RS1, the cellular structure is absent in RS type 2 (RS2). - The RS type 3 (RS3) is obtained by retrogradation process upon cooking and cooling of starch-containing foods. Its resistance to digestion could be due to lower activity of pancreatic α-amylases toward starch double helices as against fully gelatinized starch molecules (e.g., retrograded high amylose maize starch). - The RS type 4 (RS4) is the starch-modified through chemical processes such as esterification, crosslinking, hydroxypropylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. The functional groups block the site of action of starch digestive enzymes, which confers resistance of RS4 to digestion. - The RS type 5 (RS5) is defined as the starch obtained by complex formation between high amylose starch with the lipids, which further increases the enzyme resistance of high amylose by preventing granule swelling during cooking.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - RS fermentation in the lower GI tract produces different starch oligomers and SCFAs
  • [1.4] [#Butyrate
    - resistant starch was highly butyrogenic
  • [#Ruminococcaceae] - resistant starch prebiotic fibers > increase Prevotella and families #Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococaceae
  • [#Inulin, #Maltodextrin, #Rice] - The relative abundance of the pro-inflammatory phylum #Proteobacteria was decreased by the prebiotic intervention
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Resistant #Maltodextrin and #Inulin produced the greatest increase in total SCFA levels followed by resistant starch and #Rice bran

References Notes

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