Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Enterococcus ⇒ Enterococcus gallinarum {50002623}

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Enterococcus gallinarum


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Autoimmune disease
    - E. gallinarum diverges into independent lineages adapted to colonize either luminal or mucosal niches in the gut. Compared with ancestral and luminal E. gallinarum, mucosally adapted strains evade detection and clearance by the immune system, exhibit increased translocation to and survival within the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, and induce increased intestinal and hepatic inflammation. - Over time, E. gallinarum diverged into two distinct populations: one that behaved like the ancestral strain and another that gained the ability to escape the intestine and persist in the liver. - the population of E. gallinarum that translocated to the mice’s liver was able to temporarily evade detection and clearance by the mice’s immune system. - population that translocated to the liver triggered inflammation and exacerbated symptoms of autoimmune conditions.
  • [1.2
    - Intramuscular vaccination against E. gallinarum prevented E. gallinarum translocation into internal organs.
  • [#Systemic lupus erythematosus] SLE > higher titers of anti-E. gallinarum IgG in patients were significantly correlated with the presence of anti-Ribosomal P, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm autoantibodies. - E. gallinarum was detected in the mesenteric veins, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, and liver of (NZW × BXSB)F1 hybrid mice. - E. gallinarum was detected in liver biopsy samples from both lupus patients and autoimmune hepatitis patients. - Th17 cells were induced in the small intestinal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes of C57BL/6 mice monocolonized with E. gallinarum. - The induction of Th17 and autoantibodies by E. gallinarum was eliminated by the administration of a selective AhR antagonist, which indicates that E. gallinarum promotes autoimmunity by AhR signaling. - the presence of E. gallinarum upregulated Enpp3, which can increase the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Both murine hepatocytes and human hepatocytes induced type I interferon under the stimulation of E. gallinarum.
  • [#Systemic lupus erythematosus] - Anti-β2GP1 antibody is also a diagnostic index for SLE. - β2GP1 ortholog expressed by E. gallinarum was found to induce anti-β2GP1 antibody
  • [1.3
    - The dominant species identified in the bile of #Gallbladder cancer patients included #Fusobacterium nucleatum, #Escherichia coli, and #Enterobacter sp., while the bile from cholelithiasis patients primarily contained #Escherichia coli, #Salmonella sp., and Enterococcus gallinarum

References Notes

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