Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Polyamine ⇒ Spermidine {90000395}

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Meta Information

Structural Type:[  ]
Functional Type:[  ]
Anti-inflammatory, Anti-aging, Anti-cancer, Antioxidant, Neuroprotector


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Polyamine
    - Amino acids that reach the colon are converted by the microbiome to polyamines or #Indole derivates. - The most common polyamines are #Putrescine, spermidine, and #Spermine, which play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, and migration.
  • [1.2] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - In AD, the levels of #Putrescine are increased by 70 percent. At the same time, spermidine concentration is decreased in the temporal cortex of AD patients.
  • [#Christensenella] - in neurodegenerative disease > Christensenalia has the highest PS for spermidine I and spermidine III synthesis pathway
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - spermidine was significantly reduced in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with PD and #Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - In the case of PD, the concentrations of #Putrescine, #N1-acetylspermidine, and #Putrescine spermidine-1 were found to be increased.
  • - in humans, #Polyamines are found in the form of #Putrescine, spermidine and #Spermine
  • -In these neurodegenerative diseases > increased population of microbes that lacks the pathway for producing spermidine.
  • - spermidine > neuroprotective compound
  • [1.3
    - #Putrescine, spermidine and #Spermine, given individually, were found to disrupt BBB integrity within 15 min of i.c.v. administration
  • [1.4] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - Elevated spermidine plasma levels are associated with advanced brain #Aging and might serve as potential early biomarker for AD and vascular brain pathology.
  • [1.5] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - spermidine-induced autophagy slows the rate of cognitive decline due to its ability to clear #Amyloid-beta plaques in the brain.
  • [#Cancer] - Spermidine specifically interferes with the tumour cell cycle, resulting in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of tumor growth. - it also triggers autophagy by regulating key oncologic pathways.
  • - Dietary intake of spermidine reduces the risk of neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, heart ailments, and #Cancer.
  • - Spermidine-mediated autophagy inhibits activation of apoptosis in #Cancer cells and is associated with tissue development and cell differentiation
  • [1.6] [#Covid-19
    - #Taurine and spermidine were found significantly decreased in the long COVID phase.
  • [1.7
    - Through autophagy stimulation, spermidine and #Spermine can alleviate #Oxidative stress and promote cellular longevity. Furthermore, - these promote tight junction protein, intestinal repair, and mucus secretion, all of which improve intestinal epithelial barrier function

References Notes

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