Food emulsifiers {50000123}

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Food emulsifiers
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Artificial flavor

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- Common food emulsifiers and artificial flavor enhancers have been shown to promote the growth of a certain subtype of pathogenic adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC), a dangerous bacteria found in the gut microbiome of patients with CD (1)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Emulsifiers, widely used in processed food to improve food appearance, texture, and palatability due to their intrinsic properties. Emulsifiers affect the gut microbiota, disrupt the mucosal barrier, and promote inflammation; in mice models, they induce metabolic syndrome, colitis, and translocation of #Escherichia coli.
  • [1.2
    - Short-term consumption of CMC (synthetic emulsifiers carboxymethylcellulose) in humans also significantly altered microbiota composition, reducing fecal SCFA levels, and inducing bacterial encroachment into the mucus layer.
  • [1.3] [#Akkermansia muciniphila
    - Daily oral administration of A. muciniphila prevented phenotypic consequences of consumption of both carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), including hyperphagia, weight gain and dysglycaemia. - A. muciniphila administration also counteracted the low-grade intestinal inflammation-induced CMC and P80. - A. muciniphila supplementation prevented the proximal impacts of CMC and P80 on gut microbiota that are thought to drive low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic dysregulations. - A. muciniphila prevented alterations in species composition and encroachment of gut microbiota that were otherwise induced by CMC and P80.
  • [1.4] [#Stroke
    - positive associations between higher intakes of total cellulose emulsifiers (specifically E460 and E466) and total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (specifically E472b and E472c) and #CVD risk. - Higher intakes of total celluloses (specifically E460 and E466) and total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (specifically E472c) as well as trisodium phosphate (E339) were positively associated with risk of coronary heart disease, - total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (specifically E472b) were positively associated with risk of cerebrovascular disease.
  • [1.5] [#Diabetes Type 1
    - dietary emulsifier #Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) consumption significantly accelerated T1D development. - This is associated with increased serum levels of insulin autoantibody, a marker of T1D early development. - dietary emulsifiers > changed microbiota composition and localization in a way that is associated with the promotion of low-grade intestinal inflammation. - the severity of emulsifier-induced microbiota alterations is partly associated with diabetes status and T1D precocity
  • [#Diabetes Type 1] [#Ultra-processed food intake] - Ultra-processed foods are characterized by the use of numerous additives, including emulsifiers, as well as other nutritional characteristics including high amounts of sugars44 and low amounts of fibers which could altogether act synergistically in T1D development, as well as other autoimmune diseases.

References Notes

  • (1) [1.6
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