-Increased abundance of Akkermansia and Holdemania were found to be predictive of MS.
- Akkermansia showed negative associations with the bile acid components taurocholate, bile acid glycocholate and fatty acid anions 3-hydroxyoctanoate and caproate.
- The identification of bile acids associated with a number of our taxa is consistent with several studies showing an integral role of the gut bile acid pool as a modulator of host immune response and inflammation
- Akkermansia spp can reduce inflammation by a number of different mechanisms such as reducing plasma level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), reducing the expression of inflammatory genes, and reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, IL-8, TNF-α as well as increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-12.
- While low levels of Akkermansia were found in obesity and type-2 diabetes mouse models, exogenous administration of Akkermansia increased the control of gut inflammation and permeability by regulating tight-junction-related proteins, and thickening the intestinal mucous layer.
- - The commonly used diabetes treatment Metformin increase Akkermansia spp. abundance, and to significantly improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice while also increasing the number of mucin-producing goblet cells.
- - The population of Akkermansia in the gut is negatively modulated by the fat content of the consumed diet.
- Infants fed with breast milk rich in betaine showed reduced growth rates after birth.
- Experiments in mice showed that giving betaine to female mice improved blood sugar metabolism and lowered fat tissue in breastfeeding offspring.
- When breast-fed with milk rich in betaine, both mouse pups and human infants had higher amounts of Akkermansia bacteria in their guts.
- Low levels of maternal betaine during pregnancy are linked to increased infant weight at birth.
- Maternal betaine supplementation resulted in lower fetal weight in a mouse study.
- In a mouse model oral administration of Akkermansia activated toll-like receptor 2, increased the expression of epithelial tight-junction proteins, and reversed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance
- Akkermansia was the only genus that was underrepresented in patients with elevated HbA1c
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- [1.2] Gut microbiota dysbiosis in patients with hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease covering chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma   [Journal of Viral Hepatitis] [Journal]
- [1.3] Composition of gut microbiota in patients with toxigenic Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile: Comparison between subgroups according to clinical criteria and toxin gene load   [PLOS ONE] [Journal]
- [1.4] Increased rectal microbial richness is associated with the presence of colorectal adenomas in humans.   [The ISME Journal] [Journal]
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- [1.6] Altered composition of the gut microbiome in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.   [Epilepsy Research] [Journal]
- [1.7] Intestinal microbiota in patients with chronic hepatitis C with and without cirrhosis compared with healthy controls   [Liver International] [Journal]
- [1.8] Gut microbiome analysis as a tool towards targeted non-invasive biomarkers for early hepatocellular carcinoma   [Gut] [Journal]
- [1.9] Hypertension is associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and inflammation in a Brazilian population   [Frontiers in Pharmacology] [Journal]
- [1.10] Short-Chain Fatty Acid-Producing Gut Microbiota Is Decreased in Parkinson’s Disease but Not in Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder  [Research]  [mSystems] [Journal]
- [1.11] Altered gut microbiota composition associated with eczema in infants   [PLOS ONE] [Journal]
- [1.12] Dysbiosis of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in acute ischemic stroke and the subsequent risk for poor functional outcomes  [Research]  [Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition] [Journal]
- [1.13] Gut microbiota in early pediatric multiple sclerosis: a case-control study   [European Journal of Neurology] [Journal]
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- [1.15] Gut microbiome of treatment-naïve MS patients of different ethnicities early in disease course   [Scientific Reports] [Journal]
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- [1.17] Fecal microbiome signatures of pancreatic cancer patients   [Scientific Reports] [Journal]
- [1.18] Colonic bacterial composition in Parkinson's Disease   [Movement Disorders] [Journal]
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- [1.20] The nasal and gut microbiome in Parkinson's Disease and Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder   [Movement Disorders] [Journal]
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- [1.22] Altered gut microbiota and inflammatory cytokine responses in patients with Parkinson's disease   [Journal of Neuroinflammation] [Journal]
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- [1.25] Meta-analysis of gut dysbiosis in Parkinson's Disease   [Movement Disorders] [Journal]
- [1.26] Meta-analysis of the Parkinson’s disease gut microbiome suggests alterations linked to intestinal inflammation  [Review]  [npj parkinson's disease ] [Journal]
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- [1.36] Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders   [Anaerobe] [Journal]
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- [1.38] Alterations to the gut microbiota and their correlation with inflammatory factors in chronic kidney disease   [Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology] [Journal]
- [1.39] Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with gut microbiota profile and inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease   [Hepatology] [Journal]
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- [1.41] The gut microbiota in collagenous colitis shares characteristics with inflammatory bowel diseas-associated dysbiosis   [Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology] [Journal]
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- [1.43] Remission in Crohn's disease is accompanied by alterations in the gut microbiota and mucins production   [Scientific Reports] [Journal]
- [1.44] A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.   [PLOS ONE] [Journal]
- [1.45] Evolution of the gut microbiome following acute HIV-1 infection   [Microbiome] [Journal]
- [1.46] An altered composition of the microbiome in microscopic colitis is driven towards the composition in healthy controls by treatment with budesonide   [Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology] [Journal]
- [1.47] An altered fecal microbiota profile in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with obesity   [Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas] [Journal]
- [1.48] Obese individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes show different gut microbial functional capacity and composition   [Cell Host & Microbe] [Journal]
- [1.49] Gut microbial profile analysis by MiSeq sequencing of pancreatic carcinoma patients in China   [Oncotarget] [Journal]
- [1.50] Dysbiosis of gut microbiota associated with clinical parameters in polycistic ovary syndrome   [Frontiers in Microbiology] [Journal]
- [1.51] Gut dysbiosis induces the development of pre-eclampsia through bacterial translocation   [Gut] [Journal]
- [1.52] Early-onset preeclampsia is associated with gut microbial alterations in antepartum and postpartum women   [Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology] [Journal]
- [1.53] Comprehensive analysis of serum and fecal bile acid profiles and interaction with gut microbiota in primary biliary cholangitis   [Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology] [Journal]
- [1.54] Decreased bacterial diversity characterizes an altered gut microbiota in psoriatic arthritis and resembles dysbiosis of inflammatory bowel disease.   [Arthritis Rheumatol] [Journal]
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