MetaBiom
Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

TMAO {60000064}

Record Keys


Biotic:
TMAO
Parent:[  ]
Queue:[  ]

Details


Authoring date:
2020-09-23
Specification:

trimethylamine-N-oxide

Source:
[  ]

Links


Meta Information


Structural Type:[  ]
Functional Type:[  ]
Function:
Pro-inflammatory, Building cholesterol plaques

Notes


- trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is risk indicator for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other metabolic events. As the end-product of dietary choline and L-carnitine, TMAO is converted from trimethylamine (TMA) in the liver by flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), especially FMO3.
- TMAO promotes the release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome from foetal human colon cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner
TMAO induces inflammation by activating the ROS-TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby contributing to endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
- injection of TMAO was shown to significantly increase inflammatory markers, including cyclooxygenase 2, IL-6, E-selectin, and ICAM1, through the MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways, which then recruit leukocytes and induce vascular inflammation.

- TMAO aggravates triglyceride accumulation and lipogenesis in the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice.

-TMAO promotes vascular endothelial cell pyroptosis via ROS production, thus resulting in the development of atherosclerosis