|Structural Type:||[ ]|
|Functional Type:||[ ]|
- Lactate uptake by the liver is diminished with metformin use because lactate is a substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis, a process that metformin inhibits.
- Metformin has been suggested as increasing production of lactate in the large intestine.
- Epidemiological studies first recognized a relationship with metformin use in T2DM patients and reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. (2)
- metformin treatment significantly increase Escherichia coli and lowers Intestinibacter abundance.
- This effect is thought to be mediated by metformin’s effect on short-chain fatty acid (butyrate)-producing bacteria and the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as through common biological pathways and genes encoded in different metformin-affected bacteria. (3)
-bcat-1 knockdown increases mitochondrial respiration and induces oxidative damage in neurons through mammalian target of rapamycin-independent mechanisms. Increased mitochondrial respiration, or "mitochondrial hyperactivity," is required for bcat-1(RNAi) neurotoxicity.
-Post-disease-onset administration of the type 2 diabetes medication metformin reduces mitochondrial respiration to control levels and significantly improves both motor function and neuronal viability.(4)
- metformin treatment, shifts a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa in T2D patient. These in turn cause functional microbiome shifts, in part alleviated by metformin-induced changes.
- The commonly used diabetes treatment Metformin increase Akkermansia spp. abundance, and to significantly improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice while also increasing the number of mucin-producing goblet cells.
- there is a negative association between specific species such as B. adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. pseudocatenulatum, B. longum, B. dentium and disease in patients treated with metformin or after undergoing gastric bypass surgery
- [1.1] Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota  [Research]  [Nature] [Journal]
- [1.2] Altered gut microbiome and autism like behavior are associated with parental high salt diet in male mice  [Review]  [Scientific Reports] [Journal]
- [1.3] Role of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology  [Review]  [EBioMedicine] [Journal]