MetaBiom
Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Short Chain Fatty Acid {60000042}

Record Keys


Biotic:
Short Chain Fatty Acid
Parent:[  ]
Queue:[  ]

Details


Authoring date:
2020-09-17
Specification:

SCFA

Source:
[  ]

Links


Meta Information


Structural Type:
Fatty acid
Functional Type:[  ]
Function:
Immun regulator, Anti-inflammatory

Notes


- About 90% of the total microbial number in adult gut belong to the two most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which together with Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are the main producers of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generated by anaerobic fermentation from dietary carbohydrates (i.e. fiber) and amino acids (i.e. L-glutamate, L-lysine) (1)
- SCFAs are the primary energy source for colonocytes and maintain intestinal homeostasis through its anti-inflammatory activities (1)
- At the cellular level, SCFAs can influence the proliferation and differentiation of colonic regulatory T-cells (Treg) cells, as well as alter their gene expression (1)
- SCFAs show crosstalk with the intestinal barrier by stimulating mucus production by epithelial cells and the rearrangement of tight junction proteins(1)

-SCFAs beneficially upregulate not only the proliferation and differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) but also the anti-inflammatory IL-10 secreted from Foxp3+ Tregs, which are mediated through GPR43 (also known as Ffar2) activation and HDAC inhibition (2)

- SCFA-producing bacteria may affect blood pressure by direct effects of SCFA on vasodilation or through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (3)