Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Short Chain Fatty Acid {60000042}

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Short Chain Fatty Acid
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Meta Information

Structural Type:
Fatty acid
Functional Type:[  ]
Immun regulator, Anti-inflammatory


- About 90% of the total microbial number in adult gut belong to the two most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which together with Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are the main producers of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generated by anaerobic fermentation from dietary carbohydrates (i.e. fiber) and amino acids (i.e. L-glutamate, L-lysine) (1)
- SCFAs are the primary energy source for colonocytes and maintain intestinal homeostasis through its anti-inflammatory activities (1)
- At the cellular level, SCFAs can influence the proliferation and differentiation of colonic regulatory T-cells (Treg) cells, as well as alter their gene expression (1)
- SCFAs show crosstalk with the intestinal barrier by stimulating mucus production by epithelial cells and the rearrangement of tight junction proteins(1)

-SCFAs beneficially upregulate not only the proliferation and differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) but also the anti-inflammatory IL-10 secreted from Foxp3+ Tregs, which are mediated through GPR43 (also known as Ffar2) activation and HDAC inhibition (2)

- SCFA-producing bacteria may affect blood pressure by direct effects of SCFA on vasodilation or through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (3)

Shared Notes

  • [1.2
    - Protection against CKD trans-membrane G protein-coupled receptor activation
  • [1.3
    - SCFAs improve stroke recovery, in part, through effects on T cells.
    - Stroke led to a reduction in circulating SCFAs.
  • [1.4
    - Specialized cells such as enteroendocrine and enterochromaffin cells in the gut, which can sense many of the metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota from ingested dietary fiber (better referred to as Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates, or MACs. send signals to the brain either via the bloodstream or via vagal afferent pathways.
  • [1.5
    - SCFAs and butyrate, in particular, has been established as playing a critical role in host metabolism (Kasubuchi et al., 2015) and intestinal anti-inflammatory action through NF-kB inhibition in colonic epithelial cells and regulatory T cell (Treg) and T helper cell 17 (Th17) response
  • [1.6
    - The reduction of Bifidobacterium also results in reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), common in ASD children.
  • [1.7
    - The blood–brain barrier allows the access of SCFAs.
    - Changes in KYN and SCFAs brain levels may underlay the development of mood disorders and anxiety.
  • [1.8
    - Propionate, acetate, and butyrate are the three most predominant SCFAs and are well-known modulators for cell invasion and apoptosis in BC

Common References