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- Common commensal bacteria produce the volatile trimethylamine (TMA) by cleaving it from choline, carnitine, betaine, and phosphatidylcholine.
- After reaching portal circulation and trafficking to the liver TMA is oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), most predominantly FMO3
- [1.1] The Gut Microbial Endocrine Organ in Type 2 Diabetes  [Review] [Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism] [Journal]