Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Breast feeding {50000118}

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Breast feeding
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Diet, Habit
Gut Lumen


- Human Milk Oligosaccharides are enriched in Human Milk

Shared Notes

  • [1.5
    - Breastfeeding increases the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which is nearly twofold higher in exclusively breastfed neonates compared with those who received formula milk only.
    - Tregs provide balance in the immune system by controlling its response to pathogens, and preventing autoimmune responses.
    - The baby’s cells were less likely to see the mother’s cells as foreign if the baby was breastfed compared to formula-fed – an effect mediated by regulatory T cells.
    - There is an enrichment of short chain fatty acid producing taxa (Veillonella and Gemella) in stool samples of exclusively breastfed neonates.
  • [1.6
    - Breastfeeding, known to reduce the prevalence of C. difficile in infants compared to formula feeding.
    - B. breve is the most commonly isolated infant-type Bifidobacterium species from human milk
  • [1.7
    - Human milk have revealed a complex “nonnutrient” biologic system that includes an entire immune system, including immune-modulating compounds (27), a system promoting gut maturity [e.g., human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)] including growth factors and hormones, and a signaling system involving cell-free RNA in exosomes and microvesicles that may influence infant immunity and microbiota.
  • [1.8
    Cessation of breastfeeding is the major factor leading to gut microbiota maturation; typically, by age 2, a childs microbiome composition resembles that of an adult, dominated by anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.
  • [1.1
    - Infants fed with breast milk rich in betaine showed reduced growth rates after birth.
    - Experiments in mice showed that giving betaine to female mice improved blood sugar metabolism and lowered fat tissue in breastfeeding offspring.
    - When breast-fed with milk rich in betaine, both mouse pups and human infants had higher amounts of Akkermansia bacteria in their guts.
    - Low levels of maternal betaine during pregnancy are linked to increased infant weight at birth.
    - Maternal betaine supplementation resulted in lower fetal weight in a mouse study.
  • [1.2
    - Low gut bacterial diversity in breastfeeding infants is thought to be a result of breastmilk oligosaccharides which serve as substrates for a limited number of gut microbes
  • - At 12 months, there remain distinct characteristics in microbiome composition in infants still receiving breastmilk, characterized by enrichment of Bifidobacteriaceae, Veillonellaceae and Proteobacteria.
    - At 12 months, breastfed infants have a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species compared to that fed formula
    - Cessation of breastfeeding, rather than exposure to solid food, appears to be associated with maturation toward an “adult-like” microbiota dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes
  • [1.9
    - In breastfed infants given Bifidobacterium infantis EVC001, which expresses all HMO-utilization genes, intestinal T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cytokines were silenced and interferon β (IFNβ) was induced.
    - Fecal water from EVC001-supplemented infants contains abundant indolelactate and B. infantis-derived indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) upregulated immunoregulatory galectin-1 in Th2 and Th17 cells during polarization, providing a functional link between beneficial microbes and immunoregulation during the first months of life

Common References