Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Fetal intestine {50000142}

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Fetal intestine
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Gut Lumen


- Micrococcus luteus strain from the fetal intestine with a genome that differed from that of other related M. luteus strains. In vitro experiments showed the ability of fetal M. luteus to proliferate and persist under the harsh pregnancy hormonal environment (progesterone and estradiol with nutrient limitation). Additional experiments showed its ability to survive inside phagocytes. Combined with data from independent cohorts showing that the prevalence of this bacterium decreased in meconium samples during the first months of life, these findings highlight that the fetal intestine environment might selectively boost the growth of M. luteus.
In addition, when this M. luteus strain was exposed in vitro to human fetal intestinal epithelial cells, it led to transcriptomic profiles resembling the tissue derived epithelial cell layer transcriptome of M. luteus positive specimens. While fetal intestinal immune cells can elicit an inflammatory response to bacteria, fetal M. luteus isolates promoted immune regulation by inducing tolerogenic antigen presenting cells in the lamina propria and reducing the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma production by fetal memory T cells. (1)

Shared Notes

  • [1.1
    - Seven bacterial genera, including Flavobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus, enriched in fetal tissues, and especially in gut samples.
    - These bacteria induced the expansion fetal memory T cells.
    - These cells are quickly converted into large numbers of killer and helper T cells once they’re exposed a second time to a specific antigen, helping to provide a fast response to past infection.
    - Bacterial exposure to microbes in the womb contributes to immune memory activation.

Common References