Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Inflamatory bowel disease {40000180}

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Inflamatory bowel disease
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ICD:[  ]
Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
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Shared Notes

  • [1.13
    - Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD.
  • [1.14
    - Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are more likely to develop Parkinson disease.
  • [1.15
    - Translocation of oral bacteria and yeasts to the lower GI tract may trigger inflammation in susceptible hosts, providing a mechanistic link to the development of IBD.
    - Conversely, dysbiosis of the oral microbiome may occur, possibly as a result of inflammatory responses and could represent a useful source of biomarkers of GI health.
  • [1.16
    - Some pro-inflammatory bacterial species are coated with a specific type of immune molecules called immunoglobulins A (IgA) which can be used as a proxy to identify microbes that stimulate immune responses
    - IgA coating of Oscillospira was associated with a delay in time to surgery in IBD
  • [1.17
    - Gut metagenomic profiles of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are highly correlated with fecal calprotectin levels, a biomarker for severity of inflammation in IBD.
  • [1.18
    - reduced levels of Christensenellaceae, Odoribacter, and Gemmiger and increased abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae.
    - In IBD, 12 features were identified in all three comparisons, including increased Peptostreptococcaceae, and decreased levels of Mogibacteriaceae and Gemmiger
  • [1.19
    -Dorea belongs to the Lachnospiraceae family, which was recently associated with IBD and which is also found in IBD patients with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate.
  • - The genus Akkermansia belongs to the Verrucomicrobiaceae and is often associated with a healthy gut microbiome. Due to its low proportion in IBD and other metabolic diseases, anti-inflammatory properties are ascribed to this genus in IBD.
  • [1.20
    - Postbiotics, such as bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and tryptophan metabolites in the development of IBD-associated gut and brain dysfunctions.
  • - The blood–brain barrier allows the access of tryptophan.
    - In IBD, especially in CD patients, TRP metabolism increases; consequently, the amino acid levels are reduced with respect to normal healthy individuals, and these changes correlate with the gravity of the disease.
    - TRP undergoes two major metabolic host pathways, the kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5-HT) biosynthetic pathways, and one microbial pathway to produce indole and its derivatives
  • [1.21
    - A sugar-rich diet favors the increase of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucolytic bacterium. The mucus layer separates luminal bacteria from intestinal epithelium: A thinner mucus layer allows bacteria to come in contact with the epithelial cells, eliciting an inflammatory response.
  • - Diet rich in high saturated fats promotes chronic inflammation.
    - One explanation is that the amino acid taurine, present in saturated fats, linked to bile acids, seems to increase substrate availability for sulfur-reducing bacteria like Bilophila Wadsworthia, highly prevalent in the dysbiotic microbiota of IBD patients.
  • [1.22
    - There is mycobiome alterations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients experiencing a flare compared with a healthy or IBD patients in remission.
    - These alterations included an increased fungi/bacteria diversity ratio and an increased abundance of Candida albicans, suggestive of fungal overgrowth during inflammation
  • - Malassezia restricta, was identified in the majority of patients carrying the IBD risk allele CARD9, a molecule involved in fungal innate immunity.
  • [1.23
    - Patients with IBD typically have a far less diverse intestinal microbiota than healthy people, as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory bacteria like Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli and Fusobacterium.
    - At the same time, bacteria that generate butyrate, an essential molecule for intestinal and immune health, are declining
  • [1.25
    - Seven bacterial species correlated with expression levels of Th17 effector cytokines, IL-17A and IL-17F.
    - The seven associated species include Ruminococcus gnavus, Escherichia coli, Lachnospiraceae bacterium, Clostridium hathewayi, Bacteroides faecis, Bacteroides vulgatus, and Akkermansia muciniphila. All of the species were positively associated with IL-17A/ IL-17F except Akkermansia muciniphila, suggesting these species are proinflammatory, while Akkermansia muciniphila is anti-inflammatory.
  • [1.28
    - Anti-TNF therapy shifted the diversity of fecal microbiota in patients with IBD
  • [1.30
    - Ruminococcus torques and Ruminococcus gnavus, two prominent species in IBD19, were also differentially abundant in dysbiotic CD and UC, respectively as well as showing differences in abundance, including Clostridium hathewayi, Clostridium bolteae, and R. gnavus. All had significantly increased expression during dysbiosis, and thus their roles in IBD may be more pronounced than suggested solely by their differences in genomic abundance.
    - The reduction in butyrate in particular is consistent with the previously observed depletion of butyrate producers such as F. prausnitzii and R. hominis.

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