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- Patients with an unfavorable gut microbiome (e.g., low diversity and high relative abundance of Bacteroidales) have impaired systemic and anti-tumor immune responses mediated by limited intratumoral lymphoid and myeloid infiltration and weakened antigen presentation capacity.
- The gut microbiome may modulate responses to anti PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients.
- Patients with a favorable gut microbiome (e.g., high diversity and abundance of Ruminococcaceae/Faecalibacterium) have enhanced systemic and anti-tumor immune responses mediated by increased antigen presentation, and improved effector T cell function in the periphery and the tumor microenvironment.
-Bifidobacterium emerged as strongly associated with T cell response, and consistently, oral administration of a cocktail of Bifidobacterium species combined with an anti-PD-L1 antibody nearly abolished the melanoma growth.
- Bifidobacterium longum, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Enterococcus faecium was associated with anti-PD1 efficacy in metastatic melanoma patients. (2)
- [1.1] Gut microbiome modulates response to anti–PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients  [Research] 
- [1.2] Pharmacomicrobiomics: exploiting the drug-microbiota interactions in anticancer therapies  [Research]