MetaBiom
Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Multiple Sclerosis {40000102}

Record Keys


Definition:
Multiple Sclerosis
Class:[  ]

Details


Other Terms:
MS
Authoring date:
2020-09-06

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Meta Information


ICD:[  ]
Category:
Neurologic
MedDra ID:
10028245
MedDra Level:
4

Notes


- Mice colonized with B fragilis and Polysaccharide A molecule become resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalitis. (1)

- B. fragilis was able to persist in the gut when added to the IgA-producing mice, but never got established in the guts of the IgA-deficient mice, the team reports.
- IgA caused the microbes to clump together along the gut lining and penetrate the protective mucus layer, allowing them to cozy right up to the gut NULLs cells. Without IgA, the microbes fail to permanently colonize the gut. (2)

- C. kefyr suppressed EAE by modifying microflora.
- Transfer of intestinal microflora of C. kefyr-treated mice reproduced increased Lactobacillales and decreased Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio and ameliorated EAE.(3)

- Because ampicillin was the only antibiotic that reduced symptoms in the mouse model, the researchers looked for microbiota that were almost completely deleted specifically in the ampicillin-treated mice. They found only one such bacteria, a new strain called OTU0002, which genome sequencing indicated was probably a newly isolated bacterium of the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Interestingly, the team found bacteria of the same family that are closely related to OTU0002, in other mammals, including humans.
- EAE symptoms in mice co-colonized with L. reuteri and OTU0002 were more severe than those in OTU0002-only mice, and were just as severe as those in the original model mice, indicating that these two bacteria worked together produced far more devastating results. (4)

- A strain of Lactobacillus reuteri that possesses peptides that potentially mimic MOG. Mice that were co-colonized with these two strains showed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis symptoms that were more severe than those of germ-free or monocolonized mice. (5)

-Protein expressed by Lactobacillus reuteri does resemble a region of MOG, and when tested, it weakly activated MOG-specific T cells.
-EAE symptoms in mice co-colonized with L. reuteri and OTU0002 were more severe than those in OTU0002-only mice, and were just as severe as those in the original model mice, indicating that these two bacteria worked together produced far more devastating results. (6)

Methanobrevibacteriaceae
- activates the immune system
- immunoproliferative properties that drive inflammation
- Methanobrevibacter was seven times greater in patients with MS than in the control group, but not every MS patient had the bacteria (7)

- An increase in Archaea (Methanobrevibacteriaceae) in MS vs. controls (p < 0.00001 by 454 sequencing).
- Archaea are in a kingdom separate from bacteria and eukaryotes and in the human gut are dominated by Methanobrevibacter smithii, which make up 10% of colonic anaerobes in the gut. (8)

- Lipid 654 , a unique bacterial lipodipeptide, that is produced by a number of commensal Bacteroidetes is found in significantly lower levels in serum from MS patients versus healthy individuals.
- it is unknown whether Lipid 654 is secreted by these organisms or is released upon death or phagocytosis of the bacteria.
- Lipid 654 chronically enters the systemic circulation from commensal bacteria residing in the GI tract and oral cavity, and serves as an immunoregulatory factor normally dampening and regulating immune responses in healthy individuals.
- Lipid 654 is found in significantly lower levels in serum from MS patients versus healthy individuals. (9)

Butyricimonas virosa
- produce butyrate, which is thought to be immunosuppressive.
- Butyricimonas was three times lower in untreated patients with MS than in healthy controls
- Butyricimonas dig butyrate is produced. Butyrate influences the production of regulatory T cells in the ests dietary fiber,gut(?)
- Erysipelotrichaceae plays an important role in bile acid metabolism, which can induce anti-inflammatory properties (?)
- significantly lower abundances of Coprococcus in CD, Dialister in MS, and Roseburia in RA (10)

- Decreased Prevotella levels have been reported in diseases such as type-1-diabetes and autism
- Prevotella histicola can suppress disease in experimental model of MS
- Interestingly, Prevotella is associated with the metabolism of phytoestrogens and plant-derived xenoestrogen > Low estrogen states such as menopause and the postpartum period are clearly associated with increased activity in women with MS > treatment with estrogens can suppress and/or protect animals from disease in an experimental model of human MS (11)

- This module included four ASVs that were nominally linked to a higher risk for relapse, including Blautia massiliensis, Dorea longicatena, Coprococcus comes and a species of the genus Subdoligranulum that researchers described as “unknown.” (12)

- Phylum Euryarchaeota green↑
- Phylum Verrucomicrobia green↑
- Genus Methanobrevibacter green↑ ↑
- Genus Desulfovibrio green↑
- Genus Akkermansia green↑
- Genus Butyricimonas green↓
- Genus Ruminococcaceae green↓
- Genus Bifidobacterium green↑
- Genus Faecalibacterium green↓
- Genus Prevotella green↓
- Species Methanobrevibacter smithii green↑
- Species Akkermansia muciniphila green↑
- Species Butyricimonas virosa green↓ (13)

Common References